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Promoting Islamic Moderate
Promoting Islamic Moderate
After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the world of Islam has been in the difficult situation. Many countries in the world, especially Western conclude to the “negative” perspectives. They come to the conclusion that Islam is a religion that inspires the bomb attack. Many analysis consider that Islam can stimulate a muslim to be a terrorist.[
Wednesday, January 27,2010 07:54
by Prof. Dr. Nur Syam nursyam.sunan-ampel

 

Preface

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the world of Islam has been in the difficult situation. Many countries in the world, especially Western conclude to the “negative” perspectives. They come to the conclusion that Islam is a religion that inspires the bomb attack. Many analysis consider that Islam can stimulate a muslim to be a terrorist.[1] Many statement from the elites of state, government and society in the mass-media give the pejorative outlook that Islam is similar to the terrorism which  leads to the terror activities in the world, such as a violence or bombing.  

By the concept of jihad which literally means offensive war, so that, many Muslim could be terorists. Many Muslim who envolve in the jihad activities for example in Afghanistan, South Thailand, and also in South Philipine are the people who believe that the interpretation of jihad is a war. The same interpretation is also acknowledged by Muslims not only in those countries but also in Indonesia. Many activities of jihad can be met in the Ambon, Poso and West Kalimantan as well.

Many newspapers reported that many Jihadis of Ambon, Poso and Kalimantan are the people who have experiences in the Afghanistan war or in South of Philipine and so on. Many of them have a networking to do something, for example to face and struggle for the elite of state, not only because the differentiation of religion but also the elite’s policy that puts the muslim community and Islam itself in the periphery situation.  

The labeling of religion of the terrorist surely contradict with the majority of Muslim who believe that Islam as a religion of rahmatan lil ‘alamin. To counter the negative point of view, many of the Islamic leaders in the world than write papers, create the seminar, symposium and join working for placing Islam as a worldview of muslin toward the salvation of people in the world.

 

Islam Moderate

Islam originally has a message or doctrine of the salvation. Difference from the doctrine of salvation in the Catholic or Protestant, Islam teaches the Muslim to save the world order. In the Qur’an, many verses introduce the concept of “salamah” or safety. Salamah in the meaning of etimology is the safety of someone from the others. Not only in the rethoric aspect but also in the real action. But in the terminological dimension, the meaning of salamah is someone who can save in the world and in the day after. Salamah is not only in the world now but also in the day after (in yaum al qiyamah).  We usually pray saying: “rabbana atina fi al dunya hasanah, wa fi al akhirati hasanah waqina adzaban nar”, [2] which means: “Lord, give us what is good both in this world and the next and keep us form the fire of hell”.

In the Qur’an, we know about the verse that teaches us to understand the relation between one and other by concept of rahmah. Qur’an says: “wa ma arsalnaka illa rahmatan lil alamin,”[3]  by means: “we have not sent you forth but as a mercy to mankind”. In the Hadith Sahih, we understand the saying of Muhammad SAW.: “al Muslimu li al muslim ka al bunyan, yasuddu ba’dhuhu ba’dhon.”[4] It means that:  “the relationship between believers is like a building, part of which support other parts.” The relation between a muslim and the other are like one body. If a part of the body hurt and suffering, so all of the body are sickness. In general, Islam teaches us to understand about the describe meaning of the relation between one and another by the symbol of building, body etc. The meaning is that one part to the other have to support by a mechanical system.

Islam was very concern with the brotherhood conceptions. Many texts describe the brotherhood and how to create the relation to the others: not only the relations between Muslim and Muslim, but also the relations between Muslim and non-Muslim. In the Islamic text, we know the verse of the Qur’an notes that: “hablum minallah and hablum minan nas[5] not just hablum minal muslim. Concept al-nas refers to all human beings, although there are in difference religion instead of muslim in context. So Islam gives the honoring to all human beings as well as the honoring for muslim, et al.

Historically speaking, Islam introduces for the first time the model of relation between Muslim and non-Muslim (Christians and Jews), known as The Madinah Charter (Piagam Madinah). There are, as mentioned in the charter, the conceptions how to use Islam as a model for the relation between them. One of the conception is how to build the relation between the majority and minority tribes and their religions in the same status and functions. Islam as a majority does not have a right to do free actions to suffer the minority, for example the Jews community or Christian community. Muslim  can struggle the non-muslim if they violate the agreement. If they do not, Islam does not disappoint with the rigorous actions.

According to the Islamic teachings, there are factors to build love and brotherhood: 1) the depth of the brotherhood of faith, 2) speading the greeting of salam, 3) visiting and exchanging kind words, 4) giving gifth, 5) meeting one another at congregational prayer, for example Jum’at prayer and ‘Id prayer.[6]  Islam, as the name of religion, has mission to protect life and safety for the other especially for muslim. We have the pattern for behaviour from the hadits Nabi Muhammad, saw., that we are better to say “assalamu alaikum etc for some one who are in the same religion. In the Hadith notes that Muhammad saw, said: “afsyusy salam”, by means: please spreading the salam”.[7] The safety is the caracteristic of Islam. This name is very suitable with the text and also in the context, especially in the era of Prophet Muhammad saw.      

 

Islam and Tolerance

Allah in the Qur’an states: “al yauma akmaltu lakum dinakum waatmamtu alaikum ni’mati wa radhitu lakum al Islami dina.” The meaning is: “This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”.[8] According to this text, many muslims argued that Islam is very completed religion which include a pattern for behavior, such as social, politics, culture, and another mission. For that, many muslim have the apriory attitude to see Islam as the completed mission.[9]

But Islam actually gives a man a total freedom to choose the religion that he approves. In the Qur’an, Allah states: “There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieve in Taghout (false God/authorities repugnant to Islam) and believe in Allah, then he has graspe the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-hearer.”[10]

Islam is also related with the word of moderate. And we know about the moderate Islam. In any cases that Islam is facing with the word of radical Islam or fundamental Islam or Islam hardline. According to Burhani, he notes that the meaning of din al wasath (median or moderate religion) or ummatan wasathan (moderate people) is not used to refer to median posisiton between liberal and radical (or terrorist) – the beloved meaning of the term of “moderate Islam” – but between Christianity and Judaism or  between soft and hard religions.[11] In this term, Islam moderate is Islam which in moderate position between Christianity or Judaism not between liberal and radical. So we can discuss about this one, but in my opinion, moderate Islam is Islam which are spreading the implication of salamah in all of time and space.

In cases of tolerance, we know about the conception of Islam for ahl dhimmah. Islam calls non-Muslim citizens who live in the muslim lands, ahl dhimmah, someone who has a great right in the Muslim society. Sayyidina Ali said: “they pay the jizyah so that their wealth will be like our wealth and their blood like our blood”. So, many right that to be done by Muslim to non-Muslim: 1) protection against external enemies, 2) protection from internal opression. For that, there are many rights that to be acted: a) protection of their lives and physical well-being, b) protection of their wealth, c) protection of their honour, d) taking care of them when they are incapability, elderly or poor, e) protection of their right to religious freedom, f) giving them freedom in their workplace, g) giving them the right to be appointed to position of public authority.[12]

Islam is also identical with the conception of peace. Islam is the religion of peace. According to Misrawi, there are three reasons to emphasize this argument. 1) Allah is All-Peace. 2) the peacefullness was exampled by The Messanger of Muhammad SAW. 3) the peacefullness is the indicator of highness of civilization. God creates the humankind is to maintain the culture and civilizations in the world. In this case, God truly asks to mankid for make the world order as we call “peacefullness”. So it is not logic if God asks to mankind for war in the name of Himself. [13]   

 If we analysis about this conception, so there is no doubt about the conception of tolerance in Islam. And in a sociological account, this conception can be implemented by Muslims who promote the moderate point of view. It means that, Islam build a good  relation with others, and there is no terror between one and another, there is no opression for the minority, and there is no oppression for the other member of religion etc.

Nowadays and after, we must concretely implement the rahmatan li al-alamin as a pattern for behavior for all of humankind. I believe, by implementing of moral basis like this, so Islam and muslims can develop in the next time. Insyaallah.

Wallahu a’lam bi al shawab.

 

    

 

 


[1] Terror has various  meanings. According to the Oxford Advance’s Dictionary, the meaning of terrorism is “use of violence and threats of violence, especially for political purposes”. See, A S Hornby, Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary,(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 1233. Terrorism is the action can be defined as crime against humanity. In the context of sosial and politics, terror can be typologised by two aspect: symbolic terrorism and actual terrorism. Symbolic terorism is the terror by the symbols of rigor and it has an influence to someone. And the second is actual terror that can be defined by the terror to some one or group with the severity actual. See, Nur Syam, Bombing: US Doublespeak, Islam and Terrorism. This book will be published by LKiS, Jogyakarta, 2010, p. 20-21

 

[2] See, in the Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah (201)

[3] Al-Qur’an, surat al-Anbiya’ (102)

[4] Hadith Shahih, by Imam Bukhary and Imam Muslim.

[5] The meaning of “hablum minallah wa hablum minan nas is “ …they make a covenant with Allah or with man…” See Mahmud Y. Zayid, The Qur’an, An Englis Translation of the Meaning of the Qur’an, (Libanon: Dar al-Choura, 1980), p. 44

[6] Muhammad Ali Al-Hashimi, The Ideal Muslim Society as define in the Qur’an and Sunnah (Riyadl: International Islam Publishing House, 2007), 236-237

[7] Hadith the Messenger of Muhammad saw, by Imam Muslim

[8] See the text of Qur’an,  surah al-Maidah (4)

[9] The implications of this responses, so many muslim want to create the Islamic state in many regions. Not only in Middle East but also in Indonesia and other regions.

[10] Al-Qur’an, Surah al-Baqarah: 256

[11] Ahmad Najib Burhani, “Moderate Islam Typology Missing the Point” in “ Jakarta Post”, November 12, 2009.

[12] Muhammad Ali Al Hashimi, The Ideal Muslim Society…, p. 258-269

[13] Zuhairi Misrawi, Al Qur’an Kitab Toleransi, Inklusivisme, Pluralisme dan Multikulturalisme (Jakarta: Fitrah, 2009), p. 364-365

 

Source

tags: Moderate Islamists / Jihad / Islam / Afghanistan / Tolerance / Non-Muslims / Moderate Muslim Brotherhood / September 11 / Islam and Terrorism / Quran / Fundamentalism / Judaism
Posted in Political Islam Studies  
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