The Electoral Programme of the Muslim Brotherhood for Shura Council in 2007
On the ongoing preparations for the renewal elections for one-half of the Shura (Legislative) council due on June 2007,
In line with the Muslim Brotherhood Group belief in the necessity of participation in popular and political action as being a legal and constitutional right,
And in a bid to create contacts through legal and constitutional channels,
The MB group decided to run for elections as part of the group”s constant keenness on presenting its reform approach using peaceful means and based on the Islamic principles and out of its conviction in the necessity of participation of all according to the previously announced rules of (participation not hegemony).
As the slogan of the Muslim Brotherhood expresses their genuine Islamic idea and reference, the uniqueness of their call and the divineness of their goal i.e. (Islam is the Solution), taking into account that the Administrative Court has passed more than one final rulings confirming that the slogan goes in line with the stipulation of the second article of the current constitution and that it identifies the identity of the state and nation. The slogan also does not contradict with the citizenship principle which means equality in rights and duties and non discrimination among citizens based belief, colour and sex.
It is worth noting that the recent constitutional amendments have not tackled this article and thus the slogan remains in place as the constitutional base has not changed. Thus, the Muslim Brotherhood Group has decided to run for these elections based on the same slogan.
Within the framework of the MB group”s call on all the public opinion for positiveness and contact among all the ingredients of the nation, we herein provide a brief account of the features of our electoral programme. It is hoped that it would stimulate interaction and dialogue on levels among the elite and the public opinion with the aim of reaching the best and general agreement. We are not claiming that we are the best or the absolute right but as our ancestors taught us our opinion is right but could be wrong and one is few, two is many.
Allah is our intention and He is the One that guides us to the right path.
“I only desire (your) betterment to the best of my power; and my success (in my task) can only come from Allah. In Him I trust, and unto Him I look”. (Hud:88)
The electroal programme of the Muslim Brotherhood, put up for the Shura Council elections in 2007, emerges from reform and change approach i.e. the comprehensiveness of Islam that covers politics, economy, culture and social affairs etc. that goes in line with the basis and mechanism of the Islamic state.
Islam is the Solution… why?
1. Because the Islamic approach has potentialities of reform. It is distinguished with its mechanisms for correcting and purifying oneself. Thus unique ethical values could prevail and man wishes his brother what he likes for himself. Faith gets deeper and conscience revives. Every man feels that Allah sees him and thus corruption diminishes in economic, social and political communities, crime disappears. Social ties become tighter. By so doing, society lives in peace and stability.
2. Because Islamic system reinforces man”s dignity without discrimination based on colour, sex or faith. It maintains all the potentialities of man”s life (O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust). Islam deems man free enjoying his natural rights based on the rule (When did you enslave people while their mothers brought them free). This would liberate one’s innovation, maintain values that upgrade this country such as justice, charity, perfection, refusing injustices and tyranny etc.
3. Because Islam establishes Shura principle that respects citizens’ will in selecting their representatives in all official institutions whether being executive, syndicates or societies etc. Islam also stipulates their right to hold their representatives countable for their deeds as public posts are for service rather than superiority, duty not honour. “The best people are the most beneficial to people”.
4. Because Islam has Sharia that constitutes a system for construction, progress, rise and reform. It determines what should be prohibited and what is not in legislations, dealings, words and deeds. All this links politics to ethics as noble goals necessitate noble means too.
5. Sharia sets duties of the individual, group and society to present perfect person, ruling system, protection for the group and authority abiding by Sharia.
6. Islam has to have a state that establishes, protects and abides by its system similar to the liberal solution that should have a state that establishes, protects and abide by its system. (Anything that has no foundation is doomed to collapse; anything that has no guard will be lost)
7. Islam rejects religious authority in its theocratic concept, which was wrongly understood by the West as ruling by divine right. State in Islam is a civil one with the nation setting up its system and institutions based on “the nation is the source of power”. Human effort guarantees reform, change and improvement within the framework of Sharia constants as being the reference for both the nation and state powers. So, it is a civil state based on Sharia that aims at averting corruption and stimulating good.
8. In Islam there is no religious power of anyone over anyone but only good words and preach and a call for good deeds. This power is bestowed by Allah to all Muslim regardless of their ranks out of religious advice.
9. The ruler’s authority is based on social contract between the ruler and the ruled that should be evaluated by the nation and its civil institutions. (If you find me righteous, help me but if you find me wrong correct me).
10. Thus, the Islamic approach is justly balanced. This is a special characteristic of Islam and a constant feature of the Islamic approach to reform. Correcting oneself, reforming human society without excess and extremists or negligence and wastrels who see no role of Islam in life.
Islamic state is necessarily a civil state. Civil rejects sacredness and clerical identity of state maintaining meanwhile its Islamic identity as Islam laid down limits and rights. It is a state where the ruler and the nation integrate. The nation elects its ruler and it is one that has the right to hold him accountable and remove him if needed. So he is a civilian ruler in all aspects.
Why do we run for Shura elections?
Muslim Brotherhood consider themselves as callers of Allah based on wisdom and good preach to apply Sharia through peaceful means, current constitutional institutions and free and transparent ballot boxes. This is made through:
1- Building up a righteous man devoted to his faith which he has chosen voluntary and the conducts and ethics of this faith.
2- Full freedom for every man is the genuine principle and Allah”s gift as of his birth. It is a base for setting up people’s civilization. Late Imam Al-Banna says “We call people to Islam and the government is part of it and freedom is a divine duty”.
3- Society should have mechanisms and regulations necessary to set up a rational rule based on justice and equality among all people without discrimination based on colour, gender or faith.
4- Utilizing achievements of modern civilization which do not contradict with constants of Islamic Sharia such as separation among powers, plurality, peaceful exchange of power through elections.
5- Fighting all forms of corruption, oppression, human rights violations and considering the nation the source of powers.
Imam Hassan Al-Banna says “We would like our people know, and all the nation is ours, that we do love them more than ourselves. Our souls love to sacrifice for their dignity, glory, religion and aspirations whenever it deems necessary and even if it means our demise. Nothing made us do so, except this genuine feeling that fully filled our hearts. It is hard for us to see what has happened to our people and then give in to humiliation and despair. We work for people for the sake of Allah more than we work for ourselves. Our Beloved people, we are for you not for anyone else and would never be against you”
· Brief Account on Shura Council
· Current Role of Shura Council
· Development of Shura Council
Brief Account on Shura Council
The Egyptian parliamentary life used to be set up on the idea of two chambers. This continued till July 1952 revolution which abolished the constitution of 1923, called off parliament life, and dissolved all political parties. It resorted to totalitarian political system based on a single political regime called “Al Tahrir Pannel” which was later renamed Arab Socialist Association.
This situation continued till the demise of late President Abdel Nasr. After President Sadat came to power he embarked on upgrading the political system from a one-party totalitarian regime to three platforms. In 1967 he established the multiparty system and then the idea of political parties.
In May 22nd, 1980, Late President Anwar Al-Sadat introduced essential constitutional amendments covering articles 1,2,4,5 and 77. Under the same constitutional amendments, a new part was added to the constitution (part 7-New stipulations). It included two chapters: the first chapter (Shura Council and the second chapter Journalism authority).
The parliamentary life, thus, restored its two-house system (the People’s Assembly and Shura Council). The powers of Shura Council were advisory and non-biding i.e. without legislative or control powers.
On March 26th, 2007 big constitutional amendments were introduced covering 34 articles including articles (194 and 195). The two articles were related to the powers of the Shura Council to add binding legislative powers along with the advisory ones.
As the idea of two houses (one elected and the other is partially elected) is closer to interest with one of them fully elected and one third of the other appointed. This could create a balance in the parliamentary life particularly as the figures appointed at the Shura Council (about 80 dignitaries) were intended to create a qualitative, ethnic balance, diversified specializations etc.
As part of the appointed share, we could guarantee the representation of women, minorities, scientists of different specializations, senior commanders of the army and police, religious men, intellectuals and journalists). Most of these varieties and specialties are hard to be represented through the electoral system, thus the idea of appointment and expanding its share was of benefit to achieve this purpose.
As guaranteeing the participation of different categories of the people is a pure Islamic idea, the Shura Council, if rightly formulated, could be a council of decision makers and guarantee the participation of all in shaping the future of the homeland and the interest of the nation.
This vision is one of the most important motives to file candidates for this council particularly as its powers were expanded, its importance increased and so participation in it.
The Current Role of the Shura Council
It is worth noting that among most important powers of the Shura Council as mentioned in the constitution after amendment are:
First: Shura Council is authorized to study and suggest the following:
Article (194)- The Shura Council is authorized to study and prepare whatever is necessary to maintain and safeguard national unity, social peace and basic potentialities of the society including its high values, rights, liberties and public duties.
Second: Approval of the Council should be sought in the following:
1- Proposals to amend one or two articles of the constitution provided that amendment deliberations and approval should be made based on stipulations of article 189.
2- Draft laws enforcing the constitution as stipulated in articles (5,6,48,62,76,85,87,88,89,91,160,163,167,168,170,171,172,173,
175,176,177,178,179,183,196,197,198,206,207,208,209,210,211) of the constitution.
3- Peace, alliance and other conventions that result in demarcation or those related to rights and sovereignty.
In case of a dispute between the People’s Assembly and the Shura council regarding those articles the People’s Assembly speaker shall refer the issue to a joint committee made up of the speakers of the two houses and membership of seven members of each council to be picked by the General Committee to suggest the stipulations subject to dispute. The concluded text should be submitted to each of them. If no approval is reached over the text, the issue shall be referred to the two houses in a joint session presided by People’s Assembly speaker. The place shall be set by the speaker. At least the majority of the two councils shall attend the session.
If the committee failed to approve a unified text, the two chambers shall agree during a joint session on the text approved by any of them provided that majority required by the constitution shall be met. The decision shall be taken according to the majority of the attendees. In all cases, voting shall be without discussions.
Third: the opinion of the Shura Council will be sought in the following:
1- Draft of general budget for social and economic development
2- Draft of bills referred by the president.
3- Issues related to the State’s General policies or policies related to the Arab and foreign affairs referred by the President.
The council informs the President and the People’s Assembly of its opinion. Some important bodies and authorities are affiliated to the Shura Council such as:
1. The Supreme Council for Journalism
2. The National Council for Human Rights
3. Political parties committee
Finally, in light of the new legislative powers granted to the council in addition to the other powers, it has become necessary to seek this path with the aim of bringing in reform as much as we can in light of the principles and features of mentioned in this platform.
Upgrading the Shura Council
Our vision of the Shura Council, apart form the previous powers, is to make it the highest consultative and planning panel that carries out the following missions:
– Working out a comprehensive vision covering all development t fields.
– Formulating national projects and programmes.
– Following up the implementation of five-year plans.
– Following up and monitoring supreme executive councils.
– Managing specialized national councils.
Basics and Potentialities of the Aspired for Rise
· Building the Egyptian Citizen up
· Freedom and Human Rights
· Culture and Information
· Youth, Woman and Child
First: Building Egyptian Citizen up
Man is the centre of Allah’s creation. Allah the Almighty uniquely granted man the blessing of mind and thus the responsibility of shouldering the divine duty and establishing his Sharia on his land “Verily we have honoured the Children of Adam. We carry them on the land and the sea, and have made provision of good things for them, and have preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment”. (Al-Isra:70). Thus, man’s happiness is the goal of all developments and progress. Man is also the centre of all concern, work and goal. So the building of Egyptian citizen is a priority in our electoral programme as follows:
The Spiritual and Moral Framework
The Egyptian people are naturally devoted nation, but several illnesses have recently emerged. Some material values and negative ethics, strange to the Egyptian society, prevailed. They passively affected the Egyptian personality. Thus, whoever wants reform should seek to rejuvenate and rebuild the core of this personality and the new generations in particular. This will be made based on faith, straightforwardness, and ethics otherwise reform would not yield its aspired for fruits as man is the centre and goal of any reform and change process.
It is targeted in this respect to reformulate the personality and ethics of Egyptian man based on his marvelous heritage of values and morals as follows:
– Reviving good values and ethics emerging from deep faith in Allah the Almighty, searching for legitimate work, making social solidarity duties and giving charity. By so doing, values of brotherhood and solidarity would prevail.
– Encouraging good examples in all levels whether being an official or citizen.
– Maintaining ethics using all means: media, education, culture from one hand and system and law on the other, as well as realizing freedom, justice and social guarantees.
– Stressing respect for the fundamentals of the nation represented in faith in Allah, His Books, Prophets, and Sharia.
– Educating the young both in theory and practice the principles of faith and good ethics.
– Liberating call for explaining the principles of Islam, its nature, characteristics and comprehensiveness to organize all aspects of life.
– Urging people to abide by worshiping, adhering to good principles and dealings using all means.
– Clearing media of all that contradicts with the stipulations of Islam, morals, and common senses.
Development: Key to Rebuild
The spiritual, values, ethics and conducts were not separated from comprehensive development considerations. Poverty, weak economic and living standards are the main factors of the ethical social crisis. Within this framework comes the demand for a comprehensive, human and sustainable development which guarantee the build up of material and ethical being of Egyptian man. Improving the environmental framework is also part of it.
Rebuilding Egyptian citizen demands promoting all political, social, economic and cultural conditions and thus, legitimate choices will be open to citizens. This will be made by stressing the right of human to have respectable life whether being material and spiritual for soul and body without any discrimination based on gender, ethnicity or faith.
The aspired for development of the Egyptian people does not end with providing honourable life and enjoying good health and welfare but it extends to cover freedom, justice, equality, values, human rights guarantees, balance in distributing benefits of development. This atmosphere provides job opportunities, production, creativity and self-respect.
The development concept will focus on two issues:
Intellectual production: knowledge society is considered one of the most important works in the field of promoting and rebuilding of understanding and values of the Egyptian citizen. Thus, cultural development projects of different kinds, literacy projects and promotion of information technology and communication sector would be boosted.
Civil Society Activities: This activity is one of the most important aspects of social guarantee and social equality values. Thus, reforming the legislative body of NOGs in Egypt would be a top priority by reconsidering the current NOGs law and canceling the government control over NOG work in Egypt. More support will be directed to this sector. The private sector will be encouraged to take its lead.
Second: Liberties and Human Rights
God has created man free. Islamic Sharia guaranteed freedom for each man. It also pledged equality regardless of colour, faith, gender or ethnicity “No Arab is better than Non-Arab except with pious”. There is no coercion in Islamic Sharia regarding mind or fair. “There is no compulsion in religion” (Al-Baqara, verse 256). Freedom in Islam means liberation from all forms of slavery except for God and justice among people “And when ye judge between man and man, that ye judge with justice” (An-Nisa “women” verse 58)
Out of this system of liberties which Islam has introduced well ahead of any other earthly legislations made by other human civilizations, Muslim Brotherhood belief that full freedom of every man is a genuine principle and God’s gift as of his birth. It is the base of people’s civilizations. Thus, Brothers seek to participate in Shura Council to work on boosting these indispensable sets of liberties and basic rights which should be boosted on different executive and legislative levels:
A- Basic liberties system as formulated by human rights international legitimacy:
– Freedom of faith: “There is no compulsion in religion”
– Right to live as being one of the five goals of Islamic Sharia including the right to a secured life that guarantees man’s soul, property, honour, faith and mind. “For that cause We decreed for the Children of Israel that whosoever killeth a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth” (Al-Maeda “Table”, verse 32)
– Freedom to move and travel
– Freedom to work
– Freedom to have residence including its social implications such as the social right to have urban planning policies and infrastructure.
Political Liberties System
Believe in equality principle among all Egyptian citizens as stipulated in the constitution and law and according to the principles of citizenship and equal opportunities regardless of faith, ethnicity or gender. Everyone is free to practice basic political and social freedom as long as he/she enjoys Egyptian citizenship.
· Freedom of opinion and expression using all peaceful and legal means.
· Freedom of grouping and peaceful demonstration.
· Freedom of political action whether being in syndicates and labour institutions. Freedom of forming parties. The right of peaceful rotation of power through direct secret balloting.
· Liberating students” activities in universities and schools to develop their hobbies and capabilities and create future leaders.
· Freedom of establishing NOGs, the right to allow Waqfs (religious endowments) and the man’s right to receive trial before his normal judge away from exceptional laws.
C. Social Rights
It means everything that guarantee honourable life for man.
· The right to have satisfactory living standard for the individual and family. This gives anti-poverty procedures and all-out developments special importance.
· The right to healthcare according to people’s needs rather than their ability to pay the cost of such preventive and treatment care as well as protecting the environment and fighting water pollution.
· The right to education and its basic stages in particular is a way that guarantees linking individual to labour market and its requirements as part of the fight against unemployment.
· Insurance rights by protecting the rights of all categories particularly childhood, motherhood, the disabled, aged people and single-parent families and the unprivileged.
· This set of rights as well as the aforementioned rights should be guaranteed through a system of citizenship rights. They are classified as follows:
1. Egyptian citizens, who live on the land of Egypt, have the aforementioned rights.
2. Egyptian citizens who live abroad and who have the right to participate in Egypt’s development and its construction.
3. Non-Egyptians who live in Egypt permanently or temporarily have the right to protection provided that they abide by the laws of the Egyptian state.
Third Culture and Information
As Islamic identity is the essential and effective component of Egyptian personality, Muslim Brotherhood vision of information and cultural fields relies on determents designed to maintain cultural and civilization identity and human interaction that guarantee their identity, develop activities and creativity that cope with Egyptian reality and according to a practical programme as follows:
Creating a favourable atmosphere in Egypt to restore values of free expression and to upgrade media practices that address Egyptian citizen. Free expression should not contradict with divine religions and human rights conventions. This atmosphere should also guarantee opportunities for all independent institutions of civil society, public figures, and different political powers in Egypt regardless of their background to express their opinion, platforms, policies and beliefs within the framework of human considerations, respect of opinion, counter opinion, as well as guarantees that boost identity and national spirit.
-Reinforcing values and general ethics in media practices in Egypt. Media practices in different sites- press, radio and television should be liberated from administration and political censorship restrictions etc. with the framework of professional and moral guarantees that cope with press and media code of ethics. This also guarantees activation of these morals and self-control from the part of media means without external interference or political censorship.
– Upgrading Egyptian media on all audio, video, satellite levels and domains: cadres, technologies, professional performance. The administrative body responsible for Egyptian media should be cleared of the bureaucratic legacy and corruption whether being in recruitments or the huge administrative body responsible for Egyptian media.
– Boosting values to be established in the Egyptian society particularly national unity, culture of co-existence and accepting the other. The values of justice, equality, freedom, and Shura should also be reinforced. Violence should be denounced and man’s dignity should be safeguarded.
– Improving the legislative conditions that control media means in Egypt and the current press law including articles that restrict the freedom of journalists while carrying out their constitutional duty of monitoring government performance, exposing and fighting corruption. This entails the cancellation of imprisonment punishment in press-related laws. Work on granting journalists immunity similar to those enjoyed by deputies to help them carry out their duties.
– Reconsidering the mission and formation of the Supreme Council for Journalism as being a political censorship tool imposed on the press life in Egypt. This includes guaranteeing the freedom of issuing and publishing Egypt as well as stressing the need to reforming national press institutions, facing corruption, boosting its role in human development in the field of journalism and for young journalists in particular.
– Giving more attention to Internet and electronic media as a means of knowledge, culture, and entertainment within the framework of general ethics that control the Egyptian society. Blogging movement in Egypt should be supported as a window to free expression.
B. Culture and Arts
-Demanding reconsideration of current management of the Egyptian cultural life so as to be more harmonious with the Egyptian identity in face of threats of intellectual invasion and chaos, as well as re-identifying the component of the civilized identity of the Egyptian culture and society in general to make sure that there is no contradiction between the basic characteristics of Egyptian identity of the Egyptian society and its Arab affiliation and national feeling in the character of the Egyptian citizen.
– Spreading cultural awareness of the different aspects of knowledge and stressing the inseparable link between value and ethical aspects on the one hand and different forms of creativity on the other.
– Upgrading the different stages of educational process in Egypt by beefing up financial allocations and encouraging more investment in the different stages of education sector. Education should be given top priority as being the launching pad and the development gate as well. Curricula should be reconsidered. Literacy project should be promoted. Education process with its different means should be upgraded. The door should be made wide open to external world in the following fields:
– Information technology as being the most important means of knowledge in today’s world.
– Promoting publishing and translation sector in different domains such as literary writing, Islamic heritage, science etc. as well as promoting the professional and material conditions of those concerned with them. More attention should be directed to book sector.
– Innovative arts: theatre, cinema, TV drama etc. should be put on the list of development in different innovative domains including texts, production volume as well as topics of interest to the people that serve their issues and those of the motherland and nation.
– Setting a timetable for developing archeological sites in Egypt and directing attention of bodies concerned in Egypt to safeguard Egyptian archeological heritage.
Fourth: Youth, woman and Child
Human requirements differ according to different groups inside the society, nature and the ability to meet their won daily needs and their commitment toward the society. In this respect there are three categories that play their role to map out the course of the society movement. They are youth, woman and childhood.
Woman plays the most important role in the society. She is the mother. She is responsible for successive generations that would shoulder the responsibility of building and protecting the homeland. Under Islamic Sharia, woman like man has equal rights. She has full and independent financial identity. She has the full right to deal with her property according to Sharia. Even the differences, stipulated in Sharia, between male and female emerge from their different being and social role rather than discrimination. Such differences were designed to realize integration. It was not about superiority of male over females or discrimination between them.
Thus, reinforcing the political participation and social status of woman to help her carry out her roles according to religion and ethical restrictions of the society would be a priority. This also means boosting her participation in elections, elected local and legislative councils’ membership as well as her participation in different aspects of development process. To help woman carry out her duties, the following should be done:
First: Creating a favouable legislative atmosphere necessary for maintaining woman’s right to strike a balance between her social duties and her work outside home including aspects related to motherhood and childhood care in society.
Second: Improving the legislative atmosphere for working woman and rural woman in particular who is denied the simplest labour rights by legislative and administrative bodies. Article 13 of the Egyptian law includes rights of all state employees except women working in agriculture. This means that Egyptian female farmer, the core of the social and economic development, does not enjoy legal protection or social health insurance.
Third: eliminating woman illiteracy particularly in rural areas where illiteracy is high.
Fourth: Guaranteeing legislative and security protection everywhere and transportation and work means.
Fifth: Working out special programme for poor women and small-loan programme to be financed by Zakat (the poor dues) and donation funds.
Sixth: Setting up a series of social programmes that guarantee the right of divorced woman and rehabilitate them both psychologically and socially.
Seventh: Creating new innovative means to tackle problems related to Egyptian women such as: spinsterhood, unofficial and secret marriage with the aim of guaranteeing their social right regardless of the conditions.
Eighth: Solving media and cultural aspects regarding the points of weakness in the society’s vision as to the problems of Egyptian woman through media awareness programmes, efforts of religious men and institutions regarding social and cultural roles played.
Ninth: Encouraging civil society and private sector in particular to play its role in face of such problems through a set of legislative and incentives.
B. Youth and Sports Sector
Islam stipulates that the basic objective of Islamic code is to maintain man’s soul, mind and recommends that “strong believer is better and more liked by Allah than weak one”. Islam also recommends, “Teach your children throwing, swimming, and horse riding”.
Within this framework, it is a priority to promote all activities of youth and sports sector in Egypt on the institutional and technical (skills) levels.
This starts with youth centres, sports clubs and activities in schools and ends with Olympic hero-marking project. It also includes fighting administrative and financial corruption in youth and sports sector in Egypt.
Using the latest state-of-the-art in strategic planning in this sector, special management of sports and youth institutions as well as providing training necessary to qualify those working in this field, expanding the base for participation in sports and youth activities and encouraging the NOGs, private and investment sectors to take the lead in human development in this domain.
Childhood in Egypt is facing a number of problems that should be addressed separately as well as giving due attention to supporting normal children as being a category of this society. Priorities to deal with this sector include the following:
– Childhood and Motherhood Sector: Developing legislations and tools necessary to boost child culture and everything necessary to upgrade child’s skills, mind and body everywhere whether being at: school, library, club and youth centres etc. Problems related to Egyptian mother whether being social, cultural or legislative should be addressed to improve the performance of Egyptian woman.
– Street Children: In light of the risks of this problem on social and criminal security, priority should be given to social care centers. The roles of NOGs and private sector in this field should be boosted. Social awareness of citizens as to the seriousness of the problem of giving up their children for any reason. Juveniles care institutions should be also improved to attain the main goal of their creation. Religious institutions and worship places should also work on beefing up awareness over the seriousness of street children phenomena. Finally, improving the role of social and security bodies concerned with these problems and those working in them to deal with the street children phenomena in a fair, professional and humane way.
– Child labour: For rehabilitating children who entered labour market during their early years the following should be done by boosting the process of building up man and development, strengthening current legislations, beefing up the role of the state, NOGs and private sector, reinforcing religious and social incentives for citizens, supporting international and regional cooperation in this field to get legal and international financial support. Successful experiments should be benefited from. All these are tools to be executed to face these problems of human and social aspects.
– Orphans: Setting up orphanage houses that should meet enough number of those children. Conditions of current houses should be also improved. Specialized social funds should be set up in this field. A comprehensive media and social campaign should be made based on religious and social values that calls for humane treatment of the orphan along with awareness of the social and human risks of not providing orphans with due care. Directing management of schools and different institutions that deal with orphans to the importance of dealing nicely with orphans to avert giving him/her the impression that s/he is different.
Fifth: Coptic Brothers
We confirm our principled and constant stance as to Coptic brothers as being the duty of Muslims under Islam and faith as confirmed in the Quran and Sunnah (the Profit’s sayings and deeds). This stance can be summarized in the following points:
1- They are part of the fabric of the Egyptian society.
2- They are our partners in the homeland and destiny.
3- They are equal to their Muslim brothers in all rights and duties, in assuming public offices based on professionalism and specialization.
4- Freedom of faith and worship is respectable to all. Cooperation, over all that could serve the homeland and maintain the interest for all citizens, is a necessity.
5- Stressing national unity. No activities that might evoke sedition or ethnic extremism should be allowed.
6- Safeguarding Egyptian brotherly spirit prevailing Egyptians over centuries whether being Muslims or Copts. All principles calling for friendship and love among them should reign to allow the nation to work together to build their future and protect them form ethnic hatred and not to allow any attempt to seed sedition and extremism among Egyptians.
A mature and frank dialogue should be endorsed as an approach and means for constant connection with the aim of boosting social stability and containing any crises or incidents.
Our views for the political reform
Constitutional reformat and promotion of political system
First: Constitutional reform and promotion of political system
Undoubtedly, the recent political mobility demands us to work for releasing the public freedoms for the people of all classes, to restore their rights, to take into consideration people’s will in order to shape their lives in accordance to principles, interests and values without any breach against sovereignty, so we aim at accomplishing the following:
State’s regime should be republican, parliamentary, constitutional and democratic in accordance with the Islamic Sharia …
That determines the right of the individual to participate effectively in politics in order to attain political independence on external and internal levels….and the right of the nation to make international ties based on equality and fraternity, the mutual respect of rights and national sovereignty, to respect international conventions and charts, to assure peoples” right to self-determination, all these can not be accomplished without applying Shura (consultation) that we believe in, that is represented as follows:
1)The people are the source of all powers, no party or individual or group or any body can allege their right to assume power or continue seizing it without people”s free will.
2) Succession to power should be through direct free public ballot- under the full supervision of judiciary
3) Freedom of faith, the freedom of practicing all religious rites for divine religions
4) Freedom of speech and the peacefully heralding for it in accordance to public norms and general morals, and to recognize mass media as the main source through which freedom of speech is attained
5) The freedom of establishing political parties through notification…no administrative body should have the right to interfere to prohibit or quell this right. The independent judicial power is the reference that determines what can be considered a violation and what is not within the frame of public norms and the social morals of society. Threats or violence would not be allowed as being a violation.
6) Freedom of public meeting and calls for it and participation shall be allowed in accordance with the safety of the society. No violation against security, use of force or arms possession is allowed.
7) The right to protest and peaceful demonstration
8)The representation of people through a free elected lower house and for a limited term, where re-elections are to be taken along with the necessity that laws of elections shall comprise of guarantees that assure integrity, soundness in executing them…
Thus , we will work on making judges the only supervisors of elections from the beginning to the end. We believe that the only sound system for monitoring the state and society is through parliamentary governance. The party, that wins the greatest numbers of vote in free fair elections, is the one that shall assume power and form the cabinet….to ensure the right of every citizen to participate in parliamentary elections in case all general conditions set by the law are available.
9) The right of every citizen to seek the membership of the parliamentary bodies in case all prerequisites set by the law are available
10) The army should be kept away from policy as its mission is to defend the external security of the state. No regime should resort to army whether directly or indirectly to impose will or dominance thereof. No threats against the public freedom should be allowed. The Minster of defense should be civilian like all other ministers.
11) Restricting the powers of the president because he is the representative of all Egyptians. The president should not be a leader of any political party and he would have no right to interfere in the executive power. His term in office should not exceed two successive terms.
12) To cancel all notorious laws like the law of parties, the law of syndicates, the law of press, the law of the general socialist prosecutor and many other laws that led to political deadlock and paralyzed the Egyptian political life. Laws should be changed according to circumstances to ensure the freedom of the citizen.
13) To cancel the exceptional laws that paralyzed the dynamics of serious work in vocational and labour ones and to adopt bills that serve reviving the syndicates and their activities in Egypt, to esteem the value of free crafts, to provide a suitable atmosphere for social and political participation within the framework of professional scope.
Second: the electoral reformation:
1- An independent judicial committee, that can not be disbanded, will assume full supervision and monitoring elections and referendums. The committee should carry out its duties as soon as voters are invited to participate in Elections. All executive, local, security bodies involved in to the elections should be under the disposal of the committee. This covers all the phases: nomination, voting, counting and declaring the results.
2- Clearing the current voters” registrations that do not reflect realities of the Egyptian people. Voters” lists should be made according to the national ID card.
3- Voters shall cast their ballot based on their national IDs. The voter should record his name, sign, and put the finger print
4- Imposing severe measures against violation or interference in elections that may reach to penal servitude regarding public clerk. It should be considered a crime that does not want away in prescription
5- To set accurate measures for the financial support for elections.
6- To call off security interference in the electoral process and confine their role to maintaining security and preventing any clashes among voters.
Security, justice and judicial reformation
Security, justice and judicial reform:
Judiciary is the third power, and it is the core of security in society, the resort of people against oppression and tyranny and there can not be any separation between security and justice because both are integral. There should be a due care for maintaining security, to maintain the stability of the bodies of society, confronting crimes, protecting morals by adopting a philosophy that care for reforming security bodies, supporting and specifying aims for protecting the society against any prejudices or deviation besides the security should be a role model for the citizen in disciplinary and integrity, thus we call for:
1) police and all security bodies are civil jobs as stipulated in constitution, there roles are to keep the state and society’s security as a whole and are not devoted only to keep the government’s or to be used as a mean for quelling opposition. There should be a system that controls security bodies especially their interference in public activities and elections.
2) Abrogating and amending emergency laws as they can only be declared in case of actual wars and disasters and for a specific term. No renewal should be made except in certain conditions. To determine the powers of the martial ruler in case of emergency in order not to paralyze constitution and violate public freedoms and basic rights of citizens.
3) To release all political detainees and to review all decrees issued by exceptional and martial courts.
4) To fight the phenomenon of torture in police stations, to punish all violators of this law, to apply the principle (police for the service of people), to limit the role of political security in favour of penal security and to maintain the dignity of the citizen.
5) To cancel the affiliation of prisons to the ministry of interior as an implementation for the recommendations of judges at the conference of justice and to give affiliation to the judicial authority. To establish a judicial police that follow the supreme council for judiciary, to issue a new law for prisons in accordance with the constitution and international conventions, to activate the role of judiciary in monitoring jails and to allow human rights organizations to visit prisoners and to hear their complaints.
Judiciary shall enjoy independence from the other two powers in order to assume its duties as to justice, as stipulated in the constitution, however the reality shows that people of justice lack justice and the law of judicial power gives the executive power the upper hand in their affairs and thus violates the independence and security of judiciary and deprives judges of assuming their duties in integrity. Thus the Judge’s club has to press a new law proposed in 1992. The government, however, is still reluctant to refer it to the parliament in order to be passed and still delaying any attempts to pass it to parliament, thus we will work on the following:
1) Passing the law of judicial authority to maintain its independence in all levels. To keep judiciary away from any suspicions and to guarantee respect of judiciary laws in all levels and prevent any attempt to violate them.
2) No body will be tried except by his normal judge. All exceptional courts should be abolished. The jurisdiction of military courts would be confined to the military-related crimes or committed by soldiers. To provide new trial for all those convicted by exceptional and military courts.
3) To separate between the powers of accusation and investigation, the prosecution authority should be independent
4) To amend laws and make them accordant to the Islamic Sharia as being the main source of legislation and in accordance with the second article of the constitution.
5) To work on supporting judiciary, to lift barriers before the great number of lawsuits through simplifying the procedures, to provide all immediate reasons for hearing the judicial litigation- because slow judgment is a kind of oppression. To re-structure judiciary-assisting bodies to restore rights of the people
6) To restore the right of the citizen to file a lawsuit directly against a public officer especially in cases of torture. To cancel article of martial law that gives the right to the president of the republic in case of emergency to refer any case to the martial court and to work on amending all distortions made in constitution under the so-called constitutional amendments.
7) To cancel the State Security prosecution, and to adopt the system of examining magistrate as a guarantee for the right of any arrested citizen to be tried before a judge who issue a law after hearing his/her testimony
Our views of national & regional issues and foreign policy
– National and regional issues
– Foreign policies
First: National and Regional issues
According to the fundamental, strategic, cultural and historical role of Egypt towards the other fellow Arab and Islamic countries so we would like to assure the following:
A) The Palestinian and Iraqi issues
1- The right to resist the Zionist Anglo-American occupier who usurped Arab and Muslim lands is a legitimate right stated in all laws and charters. All Arab and Islamic countries especially Egypt should assist and support both the Palestinian and Iraqi issues ion overriding their dilemma
2- To work on co-operation and integration among all Arab and Islamic countries in economy, politics, military because nowadays world is a world of integration and unions not to speak of course about the serious challenges that confront our nation and especially the challenge of the American plan that wants to submit all Arab and Islamic countries to their domination whether culturally, politically and socially…which calls for fragmentizing the region and re-draw its plan in accordance to Zionist American interests, thus threatening the stability of the region.
3- Muslim Brotherhood believes in the necessity of maintaining the unity of Palestinian factions, to remove all tensions between them and the Palestinian Authority. All Palestinian factions shall not give up their weapons because they are the only guarantee to protect the Palestinian people against the perpetrated atrocities committed by the Zionist enemy in accordance to the US backed plan to quell the Palestinian resistance, to make the Palestinian people submit and to establish a disarmed fragile Palestinian state, to cancel the right of return of the Palestinian refugees and to expand the establishment of racial settlements (also the apartheid wall) and to take Jerusalem as a Capital for Israel.
4- As for the Arab status, the Zionist enemy still wants more normalization of ties with the Arab states, to guarantee exploiting the Arab countries’ resources along with its militarily, technological, and scientific superiority in order to fulfill their dream of establishing the Greatest Israel from Nile to Euphrates… so we believe in the necessity of cutting all forms of normalization and severing all ties with the Zionist entity and to consider economic boycott as the least forms of faith and duty towards the issue.
5- As for the Iraqi issue, Muslim Brotherhood believes that the American administration when invaded Iraq (and previously Afghanistan) have usurped an Arab land and followed the law of the jungle through violation to all international conventions… Muslim Brotherhood believes in the necessity of the withdrawal of the British and American troops immediately and to leave the Iraqi people determine their destiny.
6- The unity of the Iraqi people is one of the related issues to the national security for the Arab and Muslim region; accordingly they should maintain unity between Sunni and Shiite and between Arabs and Kurds. This is one of the greatest duties that all Arab rulers should assume
b) Other Regional issues
1: Syria and Iran
The threats of striking Syria and Iran or any other Arab regimes, and the threats to change the Arab destiny to the Iraqi model in order to submit to the demands of the American administration is an utterly refused principle. This requires a real conciliation between rulers and people, to co-operate in determining the Arab future and to determine their destinies and to restore the usurped rights in order to be able to confront challenges.
2) Sudan: Muslim Brotherhood believes in the necessity of the active participation of Arab countries to solve the problem of Sudan which is a greatly strategic country as it is the gate towards Africa. Muslim Brotherhood refuses any kind of foreign interference against Sudan.
3) Somalia: Somalia is an Arab country and a member at the Arab league however civil wars torn the country and it became a theatre for the competition of interests …. Muslim Brotherhood believe in the necessity of solving the problems of Somalia on Arabic level through Arab support and especially that of the Arab league and to refuse any foreign intervention
4) Lebanon: Muslim Brotherhood believes in the unity of the Lebanese people and the conciliation between its factions is a necessity…. Lebanon’s national unity should be superior to any sectarian disputes so there should be an Arab support for resistance against the foreign intervention in order to keep the Integrity of the Lebanese territories and to preserve the sovereignty of Lebanon… Muslim Brotherhood appeals to all Arabs to work in this way.
Secondly: Foreign Policy
There are certain axes in the field of foreign policy that would fulfill the public interest, they are:
– Arab axis: It is necessary to amend the Arab League’s chart and activate it and to activate the mechanisms of the Arab work like the agreement of Arab common defense and the Arab common market and the economic unity
– African axis: Egypt is an African land that is related to the countries of the basin of the Nile and other African countries, thus there are many developing ties, the most important of which is Sudan because there are great historic ties with Egypt. Sudan should be given the priority in support under the ongoing circumstances.
– Islamic axis: There should be a due care in the foreign policy of this axis in order to attain the Islamic unity. This requires setting a programme and mechanisms to follow open door policy with the Muslim world especially with Iran, Turkey, Malaysia and Indonesia in order to establish a capable unity that could maintain the Islamic unity in the globalization era.
Finally, the international axis , Egypt enjoys many ties with all the countries of the world, thus it looks for the commitment to international norms and conventions, and to dissent from the dominance of major powers beside setting mechanisms for international stability on just bases especially the non-alignment countries.
Muslim Brotherhood View in Socio-economic domains
Solving the problems of Unemployment
Our View of reforming socio-economic problems
For more than three decades, the successive Egyptian government promised programmes for economic reformation. In the seventies, the result was: Investments moved towards consumption which served in the emergence of consumption culture among the Egyptians, distorted the culture of production and transformed the Egyptian producing rural areas into glutton consuming entities, not to speak about the establishment of the culture of rapid profit without less effort. The second phase started at the nineties decade where major steps were taken to move towards market-economics or the so-called Capitalist economy. Political reasons that forced the Monetary Fund and the International Bank to drop about 50% of Egypt’s debts are no more ambiguous for every one, this is not only related for Egypt’s stance at the second gulf war however there were a set of measures and steps that were to be taken by the Egyptian part regardless of social repercussions stemming from these measures. Egypt carried on programmes for selling the public sector companies “privatization”, to liberate foreign trade and exchange rate beside the state had to leave the investment sector on large scale and give it to the private sector to lead the development process. As a result, Egyptian economy became alarmingly submissive to external factors; it lost the factors of self development and economic independence. It is worth mentioning that any disturbance in the revenues of (oil, Suez Canal, tourism, revenues of Egyptians working abroad) affect the performance of Egyptian economy, because these recourses provide Egypt with foreign currency. The production of Egyptian exports in strategic goods like cotton, wheat and crops slumped heavily after a great self- sufficiency where Egypt was from one of the competing countries in producing these goods. Industrialization era waned away because the government and the private sector abandoned it and moved towards services sector.
We believe that reformation process is an incessant one and has no limits however the state of the current Egyptian does not reflect any glad tidings despite the elapse of many years without any commitment to promises. The classes of the Egyptian society are an evidence for that, because the rates of corruption, unemployment, and poverty surged dramatically in recent years.
Now, we are going to practice our right in running the elections of Shura Council, so it is the right of citizens to be aware of our views for economic reform also they should know the MB’s stance in many hot issues like the socio-economic programmes.
Firstly: Economic reform:
· Applying the state of rule: This is our priority. This requires a real development that paves way for legislative ambience for economic reformation. This is a persistent matter, however the most important is the implementation of law on the ground of reality. Any economic reform that suffers the lack of healthy laws and real implementation on all society parts without any exceptions is a kind of corruption and it can never be reformation. From this point we can observe now certain rules that are being implemented which are not written one however all people feel it because it serves in twisting the law, these laws are the laws of patronage, corruption and the absence of transparency.
· The adoption of a developing model for self-reliance: one notices that the rhetoric of government is the utter submission to all external factors (financing, exporting, marketing, Technology, administration). We should be aware that external loans and aids never establish a healthy economy beside that foreign investment is not the magic solution for all of our problems. We can establish a national economy based on the recruitment of local savings and make good use of all natural, financial and human resources. Next, there is the role of external aids that are represented in foreign investments, loans, and succors. All of these steps should be taken in accordance to a national development agenda and not in accordance to conditions that disregard our social, economic and cultural potentials.
· Reviewing the Economic role played by the state: giving more powers to the private sector does not mean that the state’s role has diminished but this trend became necessary due to the deterioration in Egyptian private sector, rise in unemployment rates, increase in the number of people living under poverty line, however this does not mean the return back to the bitter experience of public sector yet it means the management of public investments in accordance to economic criteria. It is also necessary to review the privatization programme that is being carried out recently.
· The availability of transparency in economic trends: Incessantly, the relationship between the business sector and Egyptian government is always described as lacking reliability especially to what is related to economic resolutions, the state of policies and the participation in international agreements. The nature of the work phase in the economic field requires the awareness of all businesses in the Egyptian society of the regulating general trends of socioeconomic ones.
· The presence of an accurate data base: It should be always available for any one who needs it. So far, Egypt has no investment maps and it does not have a data base about low income people and people suffering poverty. Moreover, the total economic data may differ with other ones although they belong to governmental bodies. In this issue, all efforts should be united to set criteria for work with each other in order to get an accurate data base.
· The climate of investments: the climate of investment is still overlapping despite the so many statements assuring its importance and the necessity of developing it. Ameliorating the suitable conditions for investment is a stable one yet the Egyptian reality is an unclear one and the suitable conditions require stability for the regulating factors like the rate of exchange, the legislative reality, the justice and the just tax dues, and justice between all people working in every field. However, the varieties in laws that deal with investment in Egypt reflect this injustice. This requires serious measures that target all investors and not restricted to certain group of investors. Also, customary and tax concessions should be related to the criteria of the kind of activity. There should be law to prohibit monopoly in certain goods like iron, cement and fertilizers.
· Industry sector is the pillar of any developing experience: Since Egypt started to apply a reforming programme for economy; its industrial sector carried many gaffs starting from the capacity of production to the kind of products adopted by the private sector. Most industries started to tend towards being consumptive and showed due care to the local market and neglected exportation beside that these industries where small and medium ones. So, there should be an overview for setting an industrial base where Egypt should produce in the field of machines and technology. There also should be a strategy for small industries that aims connecting them together besides giving the necessity facilities to these industries. Studies show that the contributions of the; private sector in the manufacturing industry is below the sectors of estates.
· Oil and mining.
· Second: Privatization Programme:
Private sector is the leader of development under the market-economics era however the error that the government perpetrated is that-before being sure strong private sector- it abandoned the public sector, left renewing it and freezing its investments. On the other hand: the public sector paralyzed and the government ceased censorship and supervision on private sector that is a new emerging one.
This is due to the failure in facing the social impacts of privatization, the imbalance between the social and economic efficiencies, also this can be attributed to the inability to consecrate necessary funds to finance the ensuing gaps that were caused by the absence of the state’s responsibilities.
It is worthy mentioning that accelerating the development process requires from business man and the owners of capital to move from one business to another and they should establish new companies in order to activate the role of private sector in accelerating the process of development rather than abandoning the precarious business and to move to non-risky business because developing what is really existing can be carried through privatization processes for the systems of management and the incentives of the public sector. Moreover, expanding the private sector can be carried only through establishing new units that add to the producing capacities and expanding the opportunities of employment.
If we tried to observe the results of privatization programme, we can focus on the following:
Privatization processes cut the road before new special investments that the economy needs. This is because all the funds paid by the private sector to buy the assets of the public sector mean nothing but financing the transactions of real assets already existing rather than using them in establishing new investments. Consequently, privatization is not financed through private sector’s additional funds. Yet, the private sector financed them through funds consecrated for investments. This deprived economy from an important factor to activate growth, this contributed to-beside other factors- the emergence of the crisis of liquidity which is in fact a crisis of stagnancy.
2- Selling of some state –owned assets is restricted to successful companies and the use of revenues in other targets rather than building new producing assets, this led to the incapacitation of public sector and the diminution of the state’s ability to carry on its responsibilities towards modernizing economy and pushing it forward.
3- The privatization processes led to the emergence of a certain feature among a class of capitalists which is the lack of the spirit of adventure and taking courageous steps because the privatization process is a kind of selling ready projects that achieve high profits yet carry no risks.
4- Privatization process let to the emergence of corruption cases that differ in degrees and there are so many controversial transactions like (Al-Ahram for drinks, Al-Nasr for Housing, Amon Hotel at Aswan, the quota of the Bank of Alexandria at the Egyptian American Bank, the selling of 20% of the stocks of the Egyptian company for communications, Omar Effendi, Port Said Textile factory Esco company……)
Accordingly, we can determine the reservations and cautions related to privatization process:
1- For manpower: There should be a satisfactory solution for the job cuts through certain suggestions like:
· The government should establish certain funds or projects that would be specialized for paying full endowments for workers and employees that leave work before the legal age of retirement.
· Providing alternative jobs for dismissed manpower.
· Training manpower in order tom enable them in working in new fields and jobs.
· Providing soft loans for capable manpower who can handle small projects in important sectors.
2- Concerning subsidization: Suggestions are as follows:
· The government should handle temporarily subsidization and programmed projects
· Offering temporarily aids for producers
· Controlling prices through a special apparatus
· Offering a monetary substitute for afflicted consumers because of the cancellation of subsidization of certain goods.
· In the issues of monopoly and competition: there should be a support for the necessary legislative and regulating mechanisms, this means:
· Activating the law of monopolizing competition
· 4- In the issue of the difficulty of evaluating assets: There is a great controversy over the basics of evaluation which requires resorting to some apparatuses that are qualified in specialization, integrity, neutrality and the professional abilities.
Therefore …the presence of an active role for the state as a partner and motivator is a necessary thing in order to attain the phase of comprehensive vision for permanent development. The government has a momentous role that it should carry through education, incentives and punishments. In case the state did not carry its role this would affect development and economic luxury however this may lead to social chaos and economic failure.
Since all trends move towards private sector it is necessary to assure that the continuation of the importance of the state’s role in managing economy where market-economics do not imply giving much freedoms for the private sector, yet this should be included in a harmonious set of economic legal and political systems that may fulfill this target, which means:
1- Activating the mechanism of market that may lead to the efficiency of specialization in resources and the activating of complete competition that can never be attained without governmental control.
2- There is an ideal capacity for a project where it can compensate the spent expenditure that is not provided through competition and needs the governmental interference.
3- The need for a law that regulates the commercial relations in order to regulate the processes of exchange and setting contracts.
4- The special production for some goods does not fulfill sufficiency especially in the retreat of foreign currency and needs the contribution of the public sector.
5- There should be a due care for poor people and this necessitates the redistribution of incomes.
6- Many employees face unemployment and this needs the interference of the state.
Concerning the mechanisms of implementation through privatization: this does not mean to move towards the system of selling because there is no problem or substitutes and the forms of privatization may differ and vary from one state to another according to the conditions of every state and these three methods can be divided into three groups that include:
· The methods of total selling or partial one for the government’s share or the public sector in the ownership of the company through public introduction for shares in the market
· Methods that do not imply selling yet are based on activating the powers of the market in management and operating resources under privatization.
· Methods that are carried on through authorization from the government’s part to the private sector in order to carry on suitable tasks for the state by the virtue of management contract or the financing rent.
· Yield of selling: The government has dealt with the yields of privatization in a way that may reduce available financial resources for investment besides, most privatized goods by companies were financed domestically from savings or through the credit facilities from Egyptian banks, therefore this did not create new faculties yet used already existing producing faculties…at the same time the government used the money in financing early retirement or to pay for debts of the public sectors… however there were no other money that flowed again in the form of new investments, so the final results for privatization is reducing available resources for investments… this led to all our adversaries from stagnancy, unemployment etc…
The government failed to conclude a right scientific view concerning the role of the state under the rapid changes in the market-economics especially its role in investments beside its role in supervision and censorship. This is due to the efforts of lobbies existing inside and outside the power. That calls whether intestinally or not to constraining the role of the government in affecting different changes in economy and politics.
Thirdly: Combating Corruption
Corruption in Egypt spawned dramatically, and Egypt occupies a low position in the reports of the international organization for transparency, where its degree was 3.2 in an indicator of 10 degrees for utter transparency and the utter corruption means zero. Unofficial payments became a feature in all dealings related to the socio-economic services. Of course the indignant public opinion for the government’s performance reveals the degrees of corruption in public utilities (the accident of Upper Egypt’s train, the accident of Kafr Al-Dwar train, the ill-fated ferry, blood transfusion bags, the issues of the ministry of industry, banking sector…etc).
And in order to combat corruption in Egypt we should count on a stratagem for facing it based on the following means:
Adopting a democratic governance that is based on the separation of powers, rule of law and forcing all citizens to submit to law, respect equality and implement its rules from all parts, it is a governance that is based on transparency and accounting.
Establishing an independent fair judicial apparatus, free from all influences that may weaken its performance, besides all executive powers are committed to respect its laws.
Implementation of rules related to all kinds of corruption especially the law of declaring properties and tax return for high rank officials and show it to public, the law of illicit gains, the law of freedom for reaching resources, strict implementation of laws related to combating bribery, patronage ad abuse of power in penalty law.
– Developing the system of censorship and serious accounting for legislative bodies through all parliamentary means in this field like directing questions for ministers and bringing forth issues for public debate beside carrying on investigations and giving credibility to the government.
– Promoting the role of public censorship bodies like the censor of the state, the divans of financial, administrative censorship that detect the cases of fault management and the arbitrary abuse of power beside the non financial and administrative commitment and the absence of transparency in the measures related to practicing a public job.
– Concentrating on moral aspects in combating corruption in the public and private sectors, this is through concentration on the call of all religions for combating corruption in all forms. This is also can be through the laws of civil service and systems and charts related to the honor of tackling a job.
– Giving more freedom for press, allowing them to reach resources and giving immunity to journalists to carry on their rule in revealing facts and carrying on investigations that expose corruption cases and the corruptors.
– Developing the republic role in combating corruption through edification programmes that highlight such gaffs and their risks for home and citizens. Promoting the role of the civil society organizations, universities educational institutions, and the intellectuals in order to combat corruption besides edifying people about it.
– Fourth: Combating poverty
Poverty is a real hamper before the continuation of development and rising the rate of economic growth, besides poverty and penury represent a great threat for peace, political and social stability and security because it prepares a rich environment for the emergence of all kinds of deviation and extremism beside being the unrestrained opposition that targets the state itself.
Poverty is seen as “ a state where man fails due to the presence of a set of objective and subjective factors to meet his materialistic and spiritual needs under a limited cultural and social context”.
And according to the adoption of this concept for poverty as a social phenomena so we are before a quantitative analysis for two fundamental phenomena, the first phenomenon is related to the discrepancies in the distribution of incomes and the redistribution of the social classes, while the second phenomenon is related to the gap between classes and the disparities in the standard of living.
Islam always and ever targeted the eradication of poverty and maintaining social justice which regulate the social joint liability for all people, because it works in combating exploitation and monopoly besides the Islamic Sharia admits that the ruler has the right to take from the additional properties of rich people and give it to the poor and the needy in order not to have money only in the hands of rich people.
Zakat (giving alms) is from one of the means that Islam adopted to eradicate poverty and wipe out unemployment, fulfill the social justice, supporting solidarity and social joint liability, and preventing the accumulation of wealth in the hands of one category.
The ratio of people who are living under the poverty line in Egypt- less then 1 dollars for one day- (since 1990-to 2003) was 3.1%, while the ratio of people living under poverty line- less than 2 dollars per day- reached 43.9%, this is in accordance to the report of human development for the year 2005 issued by the developing programme for the UN. The report also referred to the local evaluations in Egypt for the people living under poverty line where their income is one dollar per day reached 16.7%.
Concerning the pattern of distributing income among the different social classes, the available data depends on the research of income, disbursement and consumption for the years 99/2000. The results show that the distribution of income in Egypt biases towards urban areas rather than rural ones. The report also shows that 20% of the population of Egypt has an income of about 6000 L.E a year, and this ratio in urban areas 13% while the ratio at rural areas estimates 26%. And about 30% of population earns more than 12000 L.E per annum, this ratio in urban areas estimate 43% while in rural areas 19%.
UN report for human development counted on the research of income and disbursement for the years 99/2000 to show the indicators of income distribution in Egypt, these indicators reflect the following:
o 10 % of poorest people among population earn 3.7% of total disbursement
o 20% of poorest people among population earn 8.6% of this disbursement
o The richest 20% among population earn 43.6% of this disbursement
o While the richest 10% among population earn 29.5% of this disbursement
o Therefore the richest 10% among population earns 8 folds the poorest 10% of populations.
Methods for eradicating poverty:
1- Applying the system of Zakat and endowments in civilized manners through providing job opportunities for poor people and offer them all abilities for training, give them all necessary tools for crafts in order to be excluded from poverty circle until they become excluded from the channels of Zakat and to avoid giving Zakat in the form of consumer durable that meet needs for short term period yet do not ameliorate of living standards for the poor and needy.
2- Organizing the social role for business men and deepening the concept of balance between the private and public interest.
3- Redistribution of income in a manner that ensures justice and guarantees that every individual has a revenue in return for effort.
4- Increasing the rates of employment (through the establishment of projects that needs manpower)
5- To increase the opportunities of education (through providing free costs education).
6- To practice more than one economic activity for the individual among the family
7- Supporting small projects even if this required a budget for one ministry (because it is from one of the means to combat poverty which means establishing small projects and caring for it)
8- To increase the sources of income for every family.
9- Providing the vital services like health, food, education and housing in order to develop the standard of living.
10- Showing due care for subsidization and offering all means for joint liability and the social solidarity.
11- Showing due care for providing job opportunities that fit the potentials of poor people.
12- Providing soft loans and facilitating the procedures to receive such loans.
Fifth: Solving the problem of unemployment
Despite the great incongruity in the numbers about unemployment rate in Egypt, the figures of the Central Bank points out that about 10% of population suffer from unemployment while the data issued by the Central Auditing Authority pointed out that the rate is about 11.7% and we are going to count on the smaller figures although reality necessitates depending on the greater one because the problem of unemployment afflicted every Egyptian family, whether in urban or rural areas and whether males or females. The reasons of this problem are for many factors, besides its various impacts on the social economic and political domains, however we are going to point to the solutions for the problem in short term:
– Operating the suspended potentials in all national economy through working on the elimination of causes leading to unemployment. The advantage of this supposition is that it will contribute to increasing the number of manpower without the need to new expenditure in investments.
– Reviewing the policy of privatization and maintaining the successful public projects, also working on to establish public investments that count on economic reasons that provide job opportunities and fulfills extra values.
– Working on to ameliorate the atmosphere of investments and eliminating all hampers before the success of the private sector
– Ameliorating the programmes of health and education public problems which can admit a great number of graduates, taking into consideration that these jobs are real and not fake ones. This can be achieved through distributing the jobs among urban and rural areas equally and not to be concentrated only on the capital and major cities.
– Expanding the programme of training of manual crafts especially those crafts that are based on personal skill, talents and experience that are not in need for huge capital and can admit a great number of manpower.
Solving the problem on long term:
– Working on to create new job opportunities and this can be fulfilled through giving a strong push for investment and growth in all sectors of domestic economy (agriculture, industry, services). To continue achieving high growth rates and incessant ones that is called the durable development.
– To ameliorate the level of domestic investments that are not to be less than 30% in order to admit high figures from manpower annually.
– Making good use of direct foreign investments in real forms. Avoiding the form of transferring properties especially in the field of mining industry as it is available now in direct foreign investment in Egypt and making good use of the experience of South Eastern Asian countries in this field.
– Showing due care for technology and the suitable kinds of it in order to develop the programmes of development especially in the primary phases where concentration on the usage of technology is a very important because it may contribute to reducing the high rates of unemployment.
– Reviewing from time to time the recent educational policies in order to match between the educational policies and the needs of the market.
– To gather between the policies of public property and the private one in monitoring the domestic economy where the role of the government is to pave way for the support of private sector and its intermingle, so it can make balance and constrain the powers of the private sector.
– Making good use of the mechanisms of endowments and Zakat in order to create new jobs, and to provide the service of human development in the fields of education and health especially when knowing that there are some Muslim Scholars in Fiqh allowed using Zakat in providing the poor with the tools of job and some allowed using Zakat in establishing public projects.
– Avoiding the manifestations of luxury and excessive consumption
– To sanctify work as a value for all individuals in society, avoiding all parasitic gaffs and all works of bargains
Our views for religious institutions
Waqfs and Al-Azhar
First Waqfs and Al-Azhar Institutions
Religion plays a momentous role in the lives of people especially the Egyptian people who were from the most civilized people who were keen on their religious beliefs and principles that were formed in course of time. Accordingly, Muslim Brotherhood believe that Islam is a methodology of how to live in all fields of life because it solved every bits and pieces in human life whether an individual or society because it is the true religion that bestows justice, equality and social solidarity beside it is a religion that cares for education science and comprehensive development.
Muslim Brotherhood electoral programme views that there is a persistent matter to confront a lot of defects distorting the institutional and public performance in the domain of religious affairs for the waqfs ministry and Al-Azhar University at Egypt, so there should be reformation in this domain:
a) Al-Azhar University
b) Al Azhar whether as a mosque or as a university plays a momentous role in Egypt and all over the world throughout its history. It became a persistent matter to review the performance of an institution like Al-Azhar and its various roles whether in preaching, education or culture as follows:
1- To fulfill the financial and administrative independence for Al-Azhar as a university and as a mosque, giving back all endowments to Al-Azhar.
2- Supporting the education belonging to Al-Azhar in all its levels starting from the elementary schools teaching Qur’an to the university. To concentrate on all scientific educational sides at Al-Azhar starting from the curricula to the working in the educational process at Al-Azhar.
3- Making a staff reshuffle among the greatest scholars through elections and choosing the greatest imam for the Sheikh of Al-Azhar through elections among members.
4- To develop the sectors of fatwa and preaching at Al-Azhar whether among graduates or workers and to show due care to the sector of Islamic expeditions beside devising a new plan and to activate the role of Al-Azhar in Da’wah in order to clarify the true picture of Islam abroad more effectively especially at the American continents.
5- Activating the role of the complex of Islamic researches through electing its members from among Al-Azhar scholars and professors. Organizing its meetings, resorting to it in momentous matters and hearing its opinion.
6- The paper related to the reforming Al-Azhar and its role in preaching propounds the file of the role of places pf worship and ameliorating its performance in social field and not to be only restricted in religious matters. This can be attained through affiliating a department for the eradication of illiteracy and committees for reconciliation and bureau for services beside developing the performance of fatwa institutions in Egypt beside providing technology access to them, and modernizing their performance beside the legislative work and administrative one involved in the field.
b) Endowment (waqfs)
Since the institution of endowments plays a vital role in society, Muslim Brotherhood believes in the necessity of developing the institution of endowments as follows:
– Reforming the legislative and administrative bodies that govern the endowments sector in Egypt, eliminating all forms of corruption in the Egyptian authority for endowments beside the necessity of separating between the endowments sector away from the executive power.
– Ameliorating the economic use for Egyptian authority for endowments so that it can carry on its duty in social solidarity, to encourage people to contribute to the projects of endowments and work in charity or to participate with the civil sector.
– Encouraging endowments in the following fields: education, eliminating poverty and illiteracy, training woman in rural areas, ameliorating the status of families providing living besides rehabilitating tramples children and displaced ones beside supporting health sector.
Beside all these roles, the Egyptian authority for endowments represent an integrated part from social joint liability that should be supported in order to fulfill its targets in the endowments sector which is the social and economic development. Charity organizations should be out of the political game and should be supported financially and administratively from the Egyptian government in order to meet the targets of development.
Second: the Egyptian Church
Egyptian Coptic Church played effective roles along history, and Islam through its tolerance served in supporting and strengthening it. Its roles are different as they may be social ones, educational or cultural and so Muslim Brotherhood believes on the necessity of supporting the Egypt Church in the field of maintaining the norms and manners of society also to confront the growing intellectual invasion among the Egyptian Arab Muslim society beside supporting the values of family life and the national unity in all fields like caring for orphans, the needy and to help the church to co-operate with the state institutions and the Egyptian civil society beside developing a constructive effective role between the church from one part and Al-Azhar and authority for endowments from the other part in order to combat deviations and corruption in society.
Our views to develop the developing sector
· Education and scientific research
· The health sector
· Housing and urban development
· Agriculture, irrigation and animal production
· Industry power and mining
· Tourism and civil aviation
Our views to develop the developing sector
Our views to upgrade the developing sector is based on achieving the comprehensive development in all fields of human life, urban and producing ones this stems from our beliefs on comprehensive renaissance and complete reformation for all the domains of life whether social political or economic on the bases of civilization and Islam.
Our programme aims at developing the development sectors in order to attain self-sufficiency in all vital fields like food money arms, and assuring the availability of basic needs for homes whether clothing, food or houses and other services like health, education, transport and communications beside ameliorating the Egyptian economy after long stagnancy and deterioration, and fighting poverty and solving the problem of unemployment based on the following strategies:
1) Devising a national plan for comprehensive development whether a human, urban or productive one and to prepare and implement the necessary policies for activating this plan.
2) Developing and activating the high institutions of the state like Shura council, the specialized national councils in devising a national plan for comprehensive development.
3) Seeking national and foreign experiences and skills, paving way for observing their performance especially in scientific research, developing technologies in developing domains.
4) Showing due care to make good use for natural resources through clarifying their importance rather than targeting them
5) Reviewing the geographical distribution for development, population and leaving the narrow valley in order to serve the targets of development and fulfill national security
6) Establishing national projects with geographical dimensions (developing Sinai, new valley, western coast, eastern desert) and specialized programmes (nuclear programme, space programme, aviation programmes in microscopic, photonic and biological technologies beside the programmes of deepening designs and domestic industrialization)
7) Depending on self finance resources, local savings, and the contributions of the private sector. Encouraging saving, and local investments besides encouraging the Arab, Islamic and international investments in the fields of development.
8) Fulfilling the developing integration with Arab and Islamic countries specifically and Sudan and Libya generally. Our developing programme comprises our views for developing the developing sectors as follows :
First: Our views for developing education and scientific research:
The special policy for developing education process comprises of two levels, the first is that related to the educational process and the other is related to a human factor as follows:
First: Education and scientific research:
1) To work in attributing external and internal stability for the Educational process. Internally, there should be stability while externally it should be related and correlated with educational developments. Showing due care for carrying on joint researches with different scientific bodies.
2) Reviewing the budget of Education at the public budget and working on to increase it incessantly in order to cover all fees of a comprehensive programme for developing education in a limited time which is ten years, where the state should be committed to affording all expenditure of education in elementary stages, while in the second stage the civil society must contribute to supporting the educational process through contributions and donations.
3) Developing the fundamental structure of the buildings of the applicatory faculties especially the faculties of science, engineering and medicine.
4) Setting objective criteria for the educational process and its outputs in all phases in accordance to international criteria especially those followed in developed countries and evaluation and assessment for all educational phases should be conducted in accordance to such criteria.
5) To assert on the duty of the state to cover the fundamental part of the educational process in accordance to what is stipulated at constitution along with guaranteeing the academic and administrative independence for educational institutions. To encourage the institutions of the civil society to carry on the responsibility in the educational process through finance, construction and monitoring in accordance to a view that is aware of the social output for such educational projects.
6) Establishing the religious values and the moral ones besides the belonging to home in all educational curricula.
7) Developing the curricula of education in order to achieve a real revival. To preserve the Egyptian identity in accordance to the absolutes of the nation besides preserving its cultural privacy. To show due care for modern sciences like: computer, genetic engineering beside showing quite enough care for computers as an effective mean for knowledge and education. To work on providing computers for all levels and the different phases of educational processes.
8) The necessity of providing minimum of common features between all systems of education that exist in the Egyptian society in order to attain harmony in building the national personality for the new generations.
The focus on human factor
– To ameliorate the status of all teaching staff whether from vocational or financial aspects in order to make the teacher be satisfied with his original income and not to make him resort to private tuition thus he would gain back his social face and feel his role being respected in society as a tutor for generations. To hurry in executing the establishment plan for teachers.
– To ameliorate the curricula of teaching in the faculty of education beside carrying on training programmes until the graduate becomes fully qualified for being a teacher who is aware of his momentous role in life and society.
– To encourage students to be creative and productive, to provide them with all convenient tools to encourage them, give them prizes on their efforts, to honor clever students and make them feel related to the producing institutions to make good use of their views…etc.
– To work on solving the problem of illiteracy through practical means.
– To show due care for sports and military drills, to provide schools with stadiums and all means of sports.
– Following the system of regional education that would provide students with all the necessary knowledge about their regional affairs and to increase their abilities in making good use for them.
– To encourage activities and independent communities for students in all stages, to propagate the democratic culture, tolerance, dialogue and to recognize the other, respect human rights, public freedoms. To teach the civil education and life experiences in a convenient way that fit the curricula, to give the opportunity for students to participate in public activities in accordance to democratic regulations, to lift all obstacles before the student activities whether in elections or their right to demonstrate peacefully and hold meetings…etc.
Exploring and Developing Talents
One of the essential parts in human development is to detect talents and to bring up talented people as it is accordant to the issue of developing the human element that is the core and target of the development process. Detecting talents is the base that recruitment in public job should adopt as a criterion, because talented people are the pillar of human power that will build all institutions of the state along with its different sectors.
According to this importance, the programme adopts a work strategy that includes the following:
o To develop new means foe examination and evaluation in order to detect smart people in competitions and to show due care for them in early stages of life
o To depend on the system of classes for clever students in all public, foreign and private schools beside establishing an independent administration at the ministry of education where its main responsibility is to observe classes and school reports, conclude the essential data from these reports, then inform the concerned bodies like the central Auditing organization, military forces, the authority of management and organization, ministry of high education, youth and sports organs in order to provide such bodies with data about talented people.
o To set new curricula where its mission is to develop the faculties of pupils, to prepare an agenda for comprehensive work to develop educational process as a whole even in the level of educational buildings
o To adopt a strategy for the development of the capacities of talented students in all domains within the concerned bodies in education sector as if it is a project for making an Olympic champion.
o To train teachers before and after their graduation to work in this field on how to detect talents in early stages, to deal with them and develop them. It would be better to decrease the age of students at the compulsory education in order to attain the element of early detection for talents. Kindergartens should be supported in order to help in early detection for talents.
o Al-Azhar Education
Initially, we believe that there should be focus on the efficiency of the educational process within Al-Azhar. There should be a financial and administrative independence that enables Al-Azhar to assume this responsibility. The internal core of education within Al-Azhar should be democratic and to activate this as an institution. There should be more respect for scholars in accordance to a reformist strategy that should include the following items:
1) To increase the number of elementary schools and kindergarten along with focus on memorizing the Qur’an and part from the Sunnah besides teaching fine morals.
2) To support Al-Azhar institutions and provide them with tutors who are quite qualified and to devise updated curricula.
3) To support the faculties of theology in order to qualify graduates for preaching, teaching, to give fatwa and interpretive judgment for theological matters.
4) To show due care to the civil Azhar universities that graduate physicians, engineers and accountants, etc as preachers who preach for all kinds of goodness through his manners.
5) Reshuffling the board of high scholars through elections. The greatest Imam for Al-Azhar should be elected by the board of great scholars Ulma and the presidential election should only be restricted on the elected Sheikh.
This programme aims to make Egypt occupy a high position among developed countries in the field of applying the following policies and strategies:
· To increase money consecrated for scientific research in national income, and to free the fields of scientific research away from bureaucracy
· To provide good sustenance for all workers in scientific research
· To provide all scientific potentials like labs, libraries, machines and chemicals beside reckoning accurately the number of scientific researches and studies that were conducted in order to make good use from.
· To devise a plan for every institutional research center so that all workers would have the spirit of team work in order to form different scientific schools in different specializations
· To increase the number of scholarships to abroad, to increase the scientific mingling and to support co-operation with concerned international scientific bodies and make good use from previous experiences in this field through conducting scientific conferences, exchange of visits between professors and researchers on domestic level and international ones.
· To link scientific research with production is the concept of linking the output of educational process with labor market and to innovate the system of specialized research projects that are financed through production units in order to solve the problems of society whether in economy or in education.. etc. which can be attained by scientific research rather than importing already made solutions that may not suit the Egyptian society.
· To make universities and scientific institutions and academies related with the trade, agriculture and industry in order to modernize it scientifically and systematically also to show due care for the Arabic language and to develop its curricula. To encourage the localization of modern sciences and all the outputs of the beneficial international culture beside encouraging translation in all fields in Egypt.
· To develop and set updated libraries and provide them with the recent tools for collecting data and saving them then recalling the data. This should be in all stages of education and knowledge whether before enrolling to university or not also in all rural areas. There should be a support for knowledge, lending scientific materials and technological support as well as making them available and cheap especially in educational and training domains.
· Second: To develop health sector
Health care is one of human rights and is an essential right. Constitution stipulates the right for health care in articles 16 and 17. All international conventions stipulates on health rights especially the international institute for economic, social and cultural rights in articles (9,12).
Since health is the output of many interrelated social and economic factors that are related to a certain society that is characterized with different economic and educational circumstances, so our programme adopts our views concerning the development of health care sector as follows:
– To provide mechanisms that offer an incessant kind of health care to all citizens whatever their financial abilities or their domicile. The citizen also has the right to choose the hospital where he/she wants to receive treatment. There should be due care for needy and poor people.
– To provide the service of medical insurance in a way that allows ameliorating the medical service and to maintain justice in distribution for low income families so that they can enjoy health care.
– To increase the number of health units in cities and countryside and centers beside supporting the volunteering efforts and free medical centers that offer health care for free or even with the least of costs
– To provide necessary financial potentials so that all up-to-date medical appliances would be available at hospitals to ensure better care for patients.
– To train doctors and teach them how to deal with medical tools. To show due care to nursery by ameliorating the financial status and vocational ones.
– To develop the industry of medicine and its competitive potentialities. To establish more factories for medicine to meet the essential needs in all kinds of drugs and medicines especially vital ones like drugs for heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. There should be availability for domestic substitute for drugs away from the foreign one that has many fundamental considerations. To develop medical researches generally through co-operation with the universities and the ministry of health as well as international bodies and to exchange experiences to make good use of modern inventions.
– To show due care to the institutions of public health, to activate medical campaigns in countryside and cities. To edify families with the necessity of health care in order to avoid diseases.
Concerning the issue of medicine in Egypt the programme adopts the necessity of providing medication that comprise all items of fundamental list for medicine with low price and high efficiency through adopting the following strategies in medicine that are based on:
1. To link licensing of medication to the companies of medication in a way that meets the target.
2. To adopt a pricing policy that fits the abilities of the normal citizen.
3. To establish high technological updated labs to test the efficiency of the licensed medication
4. To work on building an industrial base for medication and drugs that ensure the industry of effective materials and the other inputs
One of the vital issues is preserving the environment through avoiding pollution because environment is the medium where man constructs the earth also it is the natural resource for all coming generations. Thus, there is a necessity to preserve the biological variation and to protect the environmental balance.
Environment should be a healthy medium so that people can lead their lives properly. Therefore, there should be efforts to set the international environmental criteria in order to secure better health for the citizen. This can be carried out through a cooperative work between the government, NGOs and private sector as well as the co-ordination with international organizations in order to set at the end a system for dealing with all residuals in all kinds and to protect the natural and water resources.
The general policy for environment comprises of the following procedures:
1- To unite all efforts and co-ordinations between the ministry and the apparatus of environment affairs beside uniting all institutions concerned with environment through establishing the supreme council for health and environment and medication.
2- To take necessary measures to protect the Nile River- which is a gift from Allah Almighty- through establishing a national council for protecting the Nile River that would gather all related entities in order to avoid inaccuracy in responsibilities beside devising laws and regulations that incriminates those who pollutes this great river and to work quickly on implementing laws against violators.
3- To work on solving the problem of water and drainage in countryside and cities through using purification technologies rather than traditional ones in order to reduce the investment costs and to guarantee the quick and domestic implementation beside reusing the treated water of drainage in cultivations that are not for eating.
4- To control the problem of industrial pollution through devising rules and applying legislations that incriminate polluters in a strict way beside transferring heavy polluting industries away from the cities and offering financial incentives for clean industries and distinguished industries in preserving the environment
5- To solve the problem of air pollution through the engines of cars by devising policies, laws and legislations beside implementing them so it may limit the rate of emitted gases from engines also encouraging people to use gas as a substitute for fuel and carry on a monthly check on such engines and fine all violators.
6- To set radical solutions for solid residuals resulting from refuse by employing people, recycling these residuals to reuse it especially the agricultural residuals like the hay of rice and use it as fertilizers
7- To work on reducing the pollution of agricultural land, water of agricultural drainage through pesticides and heavy elements. This can be achieved through promoting methods of manual and biological resistance. Taking strict measures against using prohibited pesticides.
8- Protecting Egyptian coasts against pollution from the residuals of vessels and oil tankers through providing the mechanisms of censorship in the form of marine checking mission and other things.
9- To solve the problem of visual and audio pollution through preparing and implementing policies and legislations that incriminate using amplifiers in public places and to work on coordinating the harmony of the forms of construction and the surrounding environment in cities and countryside.
10- To adopt a set of edifying policies and procedures for the Egyptian citizen in the field of environment through educational curricula, mass media and places of worship.
Thirdly: Urban development, housing and utilities
Despite the great interlacement between the producing sectors that constitute the Egyptian economy and despite the day after day increase in such interlacement because economy is getting more complex, yet the sector of construction and building is no longer a particular sector for other sectors. Thus, its flourishing is a great advantage to us. And its stagnancy is a great disadvantage. There is no doubt that monopolizing the necessary materials of this sector especially iron, cement, and ceramic caused so many damages to this sector which afflicted as well other sectors. This led also to the deformation in all the available housing units in favor for the luxurious housing units, this affected the popular and medium housing. While there are millions of empty housing units, there crisis of popular housing is escalating and the phenomenon of scattered areas appeared in an inhuman image because people started to resort to scattered areas, graves, mosques, and hideouts. Statistics show that the number of people in Egypt living in inconvenient places is 85% of the total number of families in Egypt and about 25% of the total census which is estimated to 19 million people are living in slums and scattered areas.
Accordingly, our programme adopts the following strategies to solve the problem of housing, and urban development in Egypt to provide people with suitable places for living
1- The essential factor to solve the problem of housing is to increase the rate of income through comprehensive development
2- To redistribute development and housing on all the national areas, in accordance to available natural resources and national security considerations in order to achieve a regional balanced development that would reduce severe central risks for Greater Cairo province along with providing it with a national net for transportation and carrying out regional development plans.
3- To increase the dependence on the new and renewable energy resources and the clean energy. To control comprehensively resources in developing new communities to increase the number of job opportunities
4- Developing creative models to design, establish and construct low priced housing units that are friendly to the environment relying on the domestic materials for building and new technologies.
5- To prepare and implement encouraging general policies to activate the mobility of housing (flexibility in changing housing units in accordance to ages, needs and other factors) through the mechanisms of Islamic estate financing, regulations and flexible methods and systems.
6- To assure the role of the state in offering the social subsidization to low income people and needy people to finance their domiciles along with restructuring the policies of subsidization to leave the subsidization of government and the housing producer- that never reaches people who deserve it-, also to support the citizen directly to be able to finance his/her housing
7- Restructuring the policies of estate taxes in order to support the special strategies to avoid the great accumulation on the valley also to reduce production of seasonal and luxurious housing for the sake of suitable housing patterns for different social classes.
8- To prepare and implement the general policies that aim at maintaining the existing estate property and to make good use from such a property.
This sector is one of the extremely important ones in developing the other sectors of economy from one hand, and in settling the producing units, providing the requirements of production from inside and outside. It is also essential because it helps other sectors to deliver their final products to local and international markets on the other hand and to serve people in transportation and means of communication, thus distributing population on the economic plan for the state in third hand.
This sector suffer many defects in Egypt and especially in the external aspect since most foreign trades in Egypt and passengers rely on foreign companies, there are also many clear deformations on the internal aspect since most goods are delivered through cars despite the high costs , then through railways, then the relatively low river transportation. It is worth to mention that railways in Egypt and river transportation are in need for restructuring and more censorship in order to preserve lives of citizens and ensure their safety.
This requires devising a strategy to the integration of such four means of transportation: river, land, marine, and air beside a wireless or wired net of communications:
telephones, telegrams, and mobile phones, also there should be a surge in performance efficiencies in this sector whether externally or internally as follows:
1- The Ministry of transportation should shoulder its main role in the full supervision on all the different activities of the sector, to devise the necessary plans to enable the sector assume its responsibilities effectively rather than the current status where there are various entities for supervision on the sector among which the ministry of interior-ministry of tourism- ministry of environment and municipalities….etc
2- The necessity to encourage the private sector in participating effectively in all activities of transportation sector because private sector enjoys great flexibility in administration, and to reduce burdens on the state budget pertaining that it should be in an organizational frame that would make it easier for the state to supervise comprehensively taking into consideration that the price of service should consider the social and economic circumstances to all social classes. The state also can offer a financial support for the public sector in return for the services it provides to citizens if it proved economic feasibility.
3- To encourage collective transportation on the expenses of the private transportation as one of the main methods to solve the problem of over crowdedness inside and outside the cities. In this aspect there should be quick response to establish new underground metro railway in Cairo and in major cities, because this is economically feasible.
4- The sectors of railways and river transportation should assume their responsibilities in transporting goods to solve the current deformation in these two sectors who only contribute to 5% only in transporting goods throughout the republic which affects the national economy due to the high costs of transportation through land which is much higher than railway and river transportation. We should note also that there is a negative impacts on the environment and increase in the rate of car accidents on roads.
5- The necessity to show due care for safety measures in all means of transport whether on roads, in railways, in river or air or marine one in order to reduce the rate of accidents especially land transportation which escalated alarmingly in recent years and caused grave casualties in lives and deformed people, this is a great economic burden on the state.
6- To work on establishing new high ways to serve the urban development, to reduce the rate of over crowdedness in biggest cities, to encourage people to move to other areas rather than concentrating round the valley, to create new job opportunities and to promote national security. This should be carried out through a comprehensive plan on the national level that should be updated from now and then, and to take necessary measures to determine priorities besides devising mechanisms for execution to the different projects of transportation.
7- To increase the quota of Egypt in transporting its exports and imports gradually in order to dispense with using the foreign vessels through encouraging the private sector to establish new companies for transport that work in naval transport beside establishing new harbors and maintain the already existing ones.
8- To work on supporting air transport, increase the efficiency of the fleet of airplanes in quantity and quality, to encourage the private sector to access the aviation sector to raise the level of service and reduce costs.
Fifth: Communication and informationThis sector is relatively distinguished sector in Egypt rather than other sectors that suffer essential problems whether totally or partially:
Our view in this sector is as follows:
– Maintain the freedom of competition between communication companies generally, and mobile companies specifically along with limiting their numbers
– To establish a public company for mobile phones and to be state-owned in order to serve armed forces, police, judicatory, state high officials and citizens who need that in order to keep the secrets of the state officials.
– To devise an integrated national programme to settle industries and communication technologies starting from the components to the design, industry and launching communication satellites.
– To expand the establishment and the development in the basic structure for information and especially in the sector of international nets for information along with working to establish internal net for information on the external and internal levels.
– To support the software industry in Egypt though all physical and materialistic means as these industries have a great value and provide the best opportunities beside what they offer in technological support for all other domains.
– Sixth: Agriculture, Irrigation and Animal production
Egypt enjoys many food resources that are represented in the fertility of the land, the vast areas for cultivation, the flow of Nile river, the presence of a huge tank for groundwater in the western desert, the experience of its peasants that was formed in course of time, despite all the above yet the sector suffer heavy structural defaults that go back to the weak investments directed to it, the great defects in the policies of pricing crops especially cotton and cereals, the inability to develop the technologies and technical methods, the lack of good usage for water, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, the lack of agricultural credit with good terms, the lack of marketing services, the building over arable lands, the great migration for manpower from arable lands to the cities and the result was the low production and great gap in nutrition especially in crops and the reliance on importing them, and there was a great retreat in traditional exports like rice, cotton, citric fruits to the extent that Egypt may be expelled out of international competition.
In order to make a comprehensive agricultural development, self-sufficiency especially in grains, the production of fish and meat, to make a great upsurge in exportation, our programme specifies the strategic elements for agricultural development as follows:
– To increase the arable land through reviving the great projects like the project of “development of Sinai, the project of developing the northern coast, the project of new valley and the north of Uwainat, the project of developing Halayeb, Shalatin and others according to priorities.
– The presence of an agricultural plan that ensures a great change in the structure of crops in order to fulfill self sufficiency in oily crops, fibers, fodder, important crops used in exportation like fruits and vegetables
– Rationalizing the use of water through increasing the cultural awareness through morals, to develop the ongoing irrigation systems in old areas, to raise the efficiency of irrigation, to use the modern systems of irrigation (spraying and throwing) in new lands.
– To develop the agricultural guidance authority in order to propagate the technological applications in agriculture to ensure the best usage for water, fertilizers, pesticides and to make the producing process be related to the institutions of scientific research and technology.
– To develop co-ops to carry out their roles in providing essentials in agricultural, animal, poultry, fish production through using the best scientific technologies
– Providing agricultural credits with long terms, suitable prices for different agricultural projects
– To establish a marketing apparatus that aims controlling the process of production and relate it with the market needs and exportation so we may avoid fluctuation in the prices of the crops
– To devise and implement a strategy for fertilizers that ensures the coverage of all the requirements of the sector of agriculture in fertilizers through producing fertilizing products and to expand the establishment of new factories and to encourage investments in the field of producing fertilizers
– To encourage the internal and external investments in the field of agriculture through providing a convenient economic climate and give incentives whether financial or technological ones.
– To fulfill self-sufficiency in fertilizers of high quality that fits the structure of crops.
– To protect old lands as natural reserves that there should no any violations be perpetrated on.
– To activate Arab-Egyptian agreements, the Arab-European ones that can fulfill the best advantages through.
– The agreement of eastern and southern of African countries and to look for exportation.
– Arab-European Partnership Agreement and to lift all barriers before the Egyptian product of high quality
– To show due care for agricultural education through.
1- Establishing and implementing the project of the University of Agriculture in accordance to the experience of successful countries like Pakistan and India pertaining that the core should be the agriculture research centres.
2- To support the high technical agricultural education and scientific research.
3- To link scientific research with the plan of production
– To lift barriers before agricultural integration in Sudan to attain the food security in agriculture
– To care for the genetic assets, the plant health for all crops, plants and all distinguished breeds in the animal production.
– To develop the agricultural industry to preserve the agricultural product, export it and ensure the stability of prices.
– To provide the animal, poultry, and fish protein through providing the fodder in most updated technological and scientific means.
– The prohibition of using internationally banned pesticides and to encourage the biological prevention.
Seventh: To develop Industry power and mining
Industry is an equivalent for development, and in Egypt it represents the main base for achieving development since the contributions of this sector in the GDP is 17.5% beside the interlaced relation and the strong strategy that links this sector with other production and service sectors.
The movement of industry started before seventy years, and Egypt were from the top of countries that preceded the countries of eastern Asia and India, however the policies of importations displaced that sector. At the beginning, this phase would be essential however it became incessant after all potentials of domestic industrialization faded away, also bureaucracy played a major role in hampering the public sector to produce for exportation like India and eastern Asia.
Egyptian industry retreated and became a captive to the local market under the wrong industrializing policies, and the excessive rate of exchange thus its abilities deteriorated and the prices surged, from then Egyptian industry no longer can compete in the international market as well as the local one.
Under the provisions of the international commercial system, the dangers of the passive reliance on the returns of Egyptian economy stemming from Suez canal, petrol, and tourism, even money transfer of Egyptians working abroad, and under the policies of monopoly practiced by major powers in the strategic goods, there is no way out but to launch a real industrial breakthrough in policies and strategies as follows:
1- To achieve integration between ministries, authorities, concerned bodies with industry power and mining, thus establishing a supreme council comprises all related efforts in these three fields
2- The co-operation between the state and the private sector to establish an industrial integrated base for strategic industries, and to make good use of this base in the production of economic industries inputs.
3- To prepare and implement general policies that aim to maintain the existing industrial property and to make good use of these industries through modernization and raising their potentialities.
4- To support and develop the convenient industrial technologies and the local materials, to activate the mechanisms of transferring and settling the technologies through financing scientific research, using external and internal experiences, to provide a suitable climate through expanding technical bodies and to devise the systems of creativity in applicatory sciences.
5- To adopt a national plan for renaissance because the Egyptian industry is based on the methodology of successive industrial sequence that starts with constructive materials, then engineering industries then, medium and final industries in order to limit the total expenses and to show due care for the GDP in establishing the industrial set.
6- To work on setting the standardized criteria that are comprehensive for all industrial products and to apply it strictly besides raising its levels in some products and especially the constructive materials to increase production, and the competitive potentialities.
7- To re-devise the educational policies to link it with industry and scientific research, and to ameliorate the level of technical education and professional training.
8- To prepare and implement policies that target deepening industrialization and to increase the domestic component in the industrial product without any under estimation to the standards of safety and quality.
9- To link the industrial development plan with the comprehensive plans for human, urban, sector development , in order to provide the necessary inputs for its projects and to make good use of the outputs.
10- To adopt a national plan for power and energy in Egypt, that aim to meet all needs of development, to work on following the balanced policies in generating power in various forms from the traditional ones like petrol, natural gas and other alternative ones like wind, solar energy, and nuclear one.
11- To prepare and implement the policies that target to fulfill the mutual interests between states and local industries and international ones in the field of mining and industrializing petroleum products and to work on conducting legislations that make good use of such resources and to limit wasting them.
Eighth: Our view for the development of Tourism and Civil Aviation
This requires a developing strategy for the Egyptian economy. Tourism occupies a high position in Egyptian resources because it has a high cultural heritage whether Coptic, Islamic beside the charming weather and hospitable Egyptian people. Tourism is like industry and one the exportation activities for the foreign currency. It is one of the components of the national income and the base for creating job opportunities for a great number of youth if we were able to make good use of its relative advantages. Tourism in Egypt is not only productive efficiencies in different sectors but it is the efficiency that is enabled through evaluation of what other competing countries do to compete with us. Accordingly, Egypt”s potentialities to succeed in this field are much greater than succeeding in other sectors if compared to other countries. Along these potentialities, their should be basic structure, private and public institutions that are highly qualified beside tourist intellect unique in transforming high faculties to real ones.
Tourity services diversify from religious tourism, scientific tourism to conference tourism then the entertainment tourism. The latter one we should comment on, because it should be accordant with our Islamic values and laws in order to make the tourist be aware of the Islamic codes and not to contradict them rather abide by. In Scotland there are tourist places where it is forbidden to drink wine, and at the Vatican it obligates visitors to wear modest cloths, thus Egypt the greatest Islamic country should abide by its Islamic codes especially when knowing that they will not be a burden for a tourist to enjoy all aspects of tourism here.
Despite all the efforts that the ministry of tourism carried out in order to present our cultural heritage to the external world and raise the level of services yet what Egypt has gained from tourism is much below its potentialities and if compared to toe top countries in tourism like Italy, France and Spain although they don”t enjoy such huge heritage like that of Egypt.
The problem is as follows and the programme specifies the following to be solved:
– To plan for protecting ancient Egyptian areas , and to modernized the means of tourism on coasts and avoid the random establishing for building in these areas
– To establish specialized hospitals in tourist places, conduct festivals and hold scientific and cultural conferences and to change all areas in Egypt to tourist places and not only concentrating on Cairo and Alexandria.
– To encourage the private sector and foreign investments to mobilize more investments in the tourism sector along with developing the banking sector to be capable of ameliorating the role of finance for the private sector
– To increase the hotel potentialities through developing the existing assets of tourism and establish new ones in order to diversify the services in Tourism
– To provide a developed structure for roads, water supply, transports, airports and to treat all besets before tourism
– To market the tourist product on an international level through activating the Egyptian tourism in main exporting markets, and to study the targeted markets, and top work in opening new markets through smart propaganda to increase the tourist media in a scientific objective method.
– To provide tourist with distinguished service starting from airport in facilitating passing the customary procedures then moving to hotels and the programme of visits to historical places until leaving Egypt.
– To direct all concerned bodies with tourism like ministry of aviation, transport , media , culture and all bodies to set a target to support tourism and propagate for it as an annual Goal.
Allah is our sake; He is the Guide towards all righteousness.