Who Stands behind torture in Egypt ?
11 leading states topped by the US stand behind torture in Egypt and Middle East countries.
Why did scandals of Abu Ghraib and Guantanamu prisons pass the Arab countries unnoticed?
The answer simply is that the prisons and police stations of the Arab states are but another copy of Abu Ghraib. But who stands by these heavy handed regimes which have weighed down on their peoples for tens of years.
The notion of human rights in the eyes of some regimes only means some international documents which they have only to sign on, while detaining human rights leading figures if they go beyond what these regimes see as red lines.
The torture file in Egypt is a thorny one, and he who tries to approach it will have his share of means of torture regularly invented by the Egyptian Ministry of Interior, given that there a special department in the ministry to follow up the new and modern torture machines (Time ,20-4-1998, Please try to find this report, translator)
What happens in Egypt is not unusual now that Egypt is ruled by a brutal dictatorial regime using all ways and means it deems suitable for protecting its security and its henchmen.
Strangely enough, Egypt does not make any of these torture machines but it imports them. Thrilling, however, is that the five Security Council members top the list of states which make such torture machines and export them to the entire world. Foremost among these states is the US which has 78 companies for making and marketing electric shock machines, followed by Britain and China, France, Russia and Israel, as well as South African, Ukraine, Romania, Germany and Bulgaria, eleven states in number.
These states make and export torture machines ranging from chains and shackles, in addition to what is known as the ghost chair which was banned in America, albeit it uses it indirectly in its detention centers which abound in the third world states, passing through the nerve gases and electric shock revolvers, as well as the electric spears which are named after the spears launched from them with wires giving shocks to the victims from remote distances.
Worth mentioning is that the US concluded several deals with Middle Eastern countries estimated at $ 97 million for provision of such torture machines throughout five years only – from 1997 until 2002 according to repots conducted by the American Trade Department itself – and of course these torture machines were given access into the Middle East region including Egypt.
In a study conducted by Hassan el Abbady the legal advisor with the Amnesty International, he affirmed that the shackles used for hanging down prisoners and detainees carry the name of an American company called Pearls Handcuff. The shackles of legs and chains, they are made by the biggest two companies in this field, mainly the American Smith & Wisent and the British Heights. The chair with chains tying the hands and ankles of the prisoner, is also made by an American company called IDIDC International.
Britain also makes the tools which are used in breaking up demonstrations, with Britain being the biggest producer of all forms of tear gas bombs, including the chemical sprinkles often used by the Egyptian security men to break up peaceful demonstrations. Moreover, a type of gas called the pepper sprinkle or Olio resin Capsicon (not sure of the names) contains a catalyst taken from a type of pepper which causes rhinitis and eye closure, in addition to cough and inability to speak, as well as difficulty breathing and severe pain of the skin, nose and mouth, and could lead to death. This type of gas was used recently against several demonstrators supporting the independency of judiciary in Egypt. The biggest company maker of this type is the American Tactical Systems.
According to al Abbady’s study, the electric shock torture machines were first used as early as 1999 and they are long range and speed tools which cause severe pain and may cause the death of the victim if his heart is not strong enough to endure the shock. The biggest maker of this type is the American Stan Tick Ink.
Experts and politicians:
Torture has become of the most outstanding characteristics of the Egyptian political regime
For his part, Kamal Habib the coordinator of the national initiative for release of detainees said in an exclusive statement to Ikhwanweb:
The case of the political detainees in Egypt is legally similar to that of the forced disappearance, since the citizen is abducted from his house or work place or mosque of street and taken to a detention center without any rights or guarantees, and is isolated from life with no visits or telephone calls, nor does anyone know anything about him.
Kamal Habib laid emphasis that there are several cases of persons detained in 1993 and since then no visits are allowed nor are they allowed to see their sons except some visits in festivals only , nor is there any healthcare for the detainees , which why diseases dreadfully spread in the Egyptian prisons such as TB and asthma .
Over 300 detainees died due to lack of Medicare, not to mention the psychic pressures exerted on the detainees to change their political and ideological positions.
Habib pointed out that the Emergency Law provides that the citizen not be left in custody for over sixty days, while there are millions of judicial release rulings by the court but they do not take effect because the state security officers are the people with upper hand in Egypt.
On his detention experiment, Habib said: I was detained in the years 1993, 1994 and 1995 successively, and saw by myself means of torture, hitting on the head and other means of torture manipulated by the Egyptian regime, prompting one to say that what happens in Mubarak’s era is multi folds as dangerous as what happened at the era of ex president Nasser.
Habib pointed to tens of human rights repots which recorded several cases of torture within the prisons and police custody.
For his part, Dr. Hamdy Hassan, the spokesman of the Muslim Brotherhood MPs at the People’s Assembly said: Of course we as the Egyptian people’s representatives shun the torture phenomenon in the prisons and police custody which, regrettably, has come back but this time it is not in for the interest of the Egyptian government but for other parties ” like the US” or what is known as torture in proxy, which puts the government to shame for generations to come.
Hassan pointed out that the Egyptian constitution provides that torture is a crime which does not end with limitations and time will come when all who practiced torture will stand for trial , and we have examples from the past ( Hamza el Basiouni and Shams Badran , who were prominent leaderships in the era of president Nasser )
On the role of the Muslim Brotherhood in limiting this phenomenon, Hassan said we have presented statements to the government whenever we are enriched with any reports or documents proving or documenting torture cases within prisons or police custody.
The Muslim Brotherhood parliament block is the first to call for a fact finding committee on the status of the Egyptian prisons after the killing of Akram el Zuhairy, and the fact finding committee actually paid field visits to the prisons and cases of torture were recorded against detainees, but the prosecutor general suspended the activity of the fact finding committee asserting that he would continue investigations. However, several years have passed and no results of investigations have been published. I tabled a memo to the parliament in which I proved that the prosecutor general works for the executive authority “the Egyptian government “, calling on him to make public the investigation results but in vain.
For his part, Dr. Diya Rashwan the researcher in the Ahram Center for studies and expert on Islamic movement’s affairs said that there are thousands of Islamists who were tortured from 1992 to 1997 and these cases, thousands in number, were confirmed by judiciary. In the whereas of the ruling in the jihad case in 1984 , 44 officers were referred to the prosecution on charges of practicing torture against detainees and all confessions taken under torture were rendered null and void . Rashwan affirmed that torture has become part of the security system in Egypt which confirms the notion “the Security Agencies ’ hands overrun their minds “
The Ministry of Interior resorts to torture under the pretext that it combats terrorism. However, this reply is not convincing, since what is the wisdom of resorting to regular torture and encroaching upon the freedom of citizens in the police custody so much so that the police custodies have become a dismay to citizens, with torture having become a constant policy of the Egyptian regime and it is exercised with an upper hand decision amid the absence of law and constitution and control of the executive authority on all other authorities.
Rashwan called for a collective move with the entire society participating to have torture and human rights abuses banned within prisons and police custodies , calling on the political forces to handle this issue as the most outstanding one which should be revived , calling also for rehabilitation of those who sustained torture with paying them damages and implementing all the court rulings thereof .
In an exclusive interview with one of the formerly detained people who refused to give his name for fear of the brutality on the part of the regime which could bring him back to the detention center. After attempts on the part of the website, he agreed to say his first name. He is Al Sayed ………” All formerly detained people fear to mention their names for the same reason.
This former detainee said that he was detained in November 1991 and continued for 15 full years in which all ways of torture were exercised against him starting with electric shock and submersing the cellar with water and connecting this water to electricity, passing through the electrifying of the male organ, and ending with contracting several diseases such as TB and Smallpox and other diseases spread in the Egyptian prisons.
Assayed also said that “I was awarded many compensation rulings but the government has not implemented any ruling, as is the case with thousands of people.”
For his part, Ahmed Saif el Islam Hamad the director of Hisham Mubarak Center for Human Rights, said: Torture has become a policy of a regime, and the torture machines are imported by the government from Western states, with the Egyptian government allocating part of the state budget. So it is the state which spends on the torture machines and it is the state also which protects those who practice torture, as the general prosecution has not referred any state security officer to trial except in the jihad case.
Saif el Islam pointed out that the definition of torture in the Egyptian Penal Law is narrower that that in the international treaty for banning torture, as the latter incriminates all those who ordered or participated with any act falling under torture. Unlike the international treaty for banning torture, the Egyptian Penal Law does not provide for punishment unless it is made for getting confessions. Saif el Islam affirmed that torture formerly was exercised with the aim of getting confessions or information but torture these days is exercised for one single goal :abuse of dignity and humanity of the Egyptian citizen , and what happened on the day of referrandum on 25-5-2005 , when female journalists and girls were sexually assaulted on the street was not of course aimed to get confessions or information , or the incident of Mohammed el Sharkawi” an Egyptian activist who was sexually assaulted in the Kasr el Nil police custody”
Hamad added that detention and the Emergency Law is but a legal cover for torture, which made torture head for a methodological policy according to the Amnesty International. Hamad called on the civil society associations, parties and political forces to close rank vis a vis the torture issue.
For his part, Abdul Monem Abdul Maksoud the director of Sawaseya Center for Human Rights said: Torture is a way exercised by unimaginative people. It is a crime against humanity and neither the sharia nor the international norms or laws allow it. He also added that many a law experts have called for toughening the torture punishment , but this demand was not heeded except in the era of president Sadat who endorsed a law providing that the torture is a crime which does not end with the lapse of time ( compensations only ), even the victim does not get such compensations except after he has tasted all forms of grievances , and there are hundreds , nay, thousands of judicial rulings which the state must carry out , but the Ministry of Interior is the quarter with the upper hand and it doesn’t adhere to any judicial rulings .
Abdul Maksoud pointed out that the incidents of violence and waves of terrorism witnessed by Egypt either in the nineties or in Taba , Dahab and Sharm el Sheikh are but a natural product of the torture incidents which are exercised within detention centers as well as human rights abuses committed daily in police stations . Abdul Maksoud called on all law experts and politicians and political forces and parties to stand firm in confrontation of the wave of torture which has befallen Egypt, affirming that this phenomenon which could lead to the society lagging behind in human and social aspects.
Following is a report of what we were able to record in one year only, mainly the year 2005 the so called year of reform.
Record of the Martyrs who died under Torture in the year 2005 the year of reform
This report relied on the press archives and statements and reports of human rights organizations either local or international as regards the cases which were published or made public from June 2004 until late in May 2005. Although this report is immense one, it is known that it only represents the summit of an ice mountain. In the light of the suppressive circumstances which citizens are weighed over under, and in the mid of the limitless power of the torture perpetrators, any one who complains or informs of such incidents could meet the same fate.
First: Death under torture
The cases which died in custody or hours after release , which are suspected to happen due to torture , were 31 cases in one year , a figure which is equal to the total cases reported in the past three years combining , while the reform hasn’t started yet !!!
1– Akram Abdul Aziz el Zuhairy : 40 , Mazraat Tora
Date of death: 9-6-2004
He was arrested in mid May 2004 under the knowledge of the state security investigations department during its campaign against these defendants in the case 462/2004 Supreme State Security in which 58 citizens belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood, and he was in provisional detention in Tora prison. In spite of his deteriorating health due to diabetes , the prison department subordinately or deliberately rejected to transfer him to hospital even after he was seriously injured while he along others were in the Egyptian infamous prison lorry . The authorities didn’t respond to the appeals except after his case further deteriorated and after they got sure that he only had hours before death , only then he was taken to hospital to die on the same day .
2- Nasser Mohammed Hussein …35, Midom village, Beni Suef governorate
Date of death: not specified, but several days before 12-6-2004
The villagers found a bare , decayed body among the plantations in Midom Village , Beni Suef governorate on 12-6-2004 . This victim was arrested from his house several days before this date. Suspects were raised among the villagers on his death which outraged them to the extent that they attacked the police station. Not long, the village was besieged with the central security vehicles and police sources said that calm was imposed on the village after the arrest of some of the villagers. And we have similar accounts on the ways the security men use to impose calm, which helps us to imagine how they dealt with the villagers.
3- Ahmed Mohammed Samy, 25, Public Zagazig prison
Date of death :11-7-2004
Sout el Umma Newspaper published that this dead person was taken from prison to the Public Zagazig hospital on 5-7-2005 and died on 11-7-2005, and that the doctor on duty demanded in his report that the body be referred to autopsy for several injuries in it , but officer / Mohammed Hassan Rashed tore up the report and ordered the prison doctor Dr. Mostafa Asaad to writer a new report , and a report was written to the effect that the deceased died of a heart attack ( although he was only 20). The locals refused to receive the body and witnessed that the body had some injuries, filing a report to the prosecution .
4- Asharaf Abdul Ghaffar Ateya …in the police truck
5- Mohammed Ibrahim el Bendary …….in the police truck
6- Ahmed Ibrahim
Date of death: 28-8-2004
The dead persons abovementioned were among 80 young men who were stuffed in two prison trucks which we overloaded without ventilation. This was in the breathless August heat. They remained stuffed in the two trucks for about 12 hours in a journey of agony via the Egyptian Libyan borders. In spite of appeals and help along the journey, no one responded to them. When they reached Cairo, the four above-mentioned died and another 19 persons were injured. These young people were arrested in Libya for trying to illegally travel to Italy via Libya.
7-Amr Attreas Hassan ….31, Imbaba police custody
Date of death: September 2004
He was arrested on 9-9-2004 at the hand of the investigation officer on a charge. On 12-9-2004, while he was referred to the prosecution , his mother found him in a state of severe tiredness and he told her that he sustained torture and was hit and hung down by the investigation officer of Imbaba police station . After days the family was informed that their son was in Imbaba Central hospital. They quickly went to the hospital out of belief that he was ill, but there they were surprised that there was only a body in the hospital autopsy. The family said that when they saw the body, there were blue signs around the hand and the feet in addition to several bruises.
8- Abduttawab Yousuf Salahuddin , Nasr City Police Station (1)
Date of death: 23-9-2004
He was arrested on 19-9-2003 by the investigations department officers on charges of robbery. The family was surprised to receive a telephone call on 23-9-2004 informing them of his death and that his dead body was in the Health Insurance Hospital in Nasr City. The dead man’s wife stated that she saw injuris on the body mainly the face was blue and there were cuts in around the male organ area and cuts on the feet. The hospital management decided to inform the prosecution that they suspected a crime. The initial report was sent to Hadayek Zainhum Health Office confirming injuries on the body before death around and on the male organ .
9- Ahmned Ali Mohammed el Mosailhy , Bela police station , Kafr el Sheikh governorate
Date of death: 20-10-2004
He was arrested on 18-9-2004 to carry out a judicial ruling issued against him before. He was kept in custody and two days later he died on 20-9-2004. The Investigations department head said in his memo that the man was found in custody hung down from the neck with the robe of his training suit in the room window.
10- Khaled Abdul Nabi Hassan , 19 , Fanara police station / Fayed / Ismaeleya
Date of death: 3-11-2004
He was arrested on 13-3-2004 at the hands of some detectives and was taken to the police station. There he was hit and hung until he fainted. When he came to mind, he saw the fire catch his body and he was seriously wounded, with a rate of burn exceeding 40% of his body.
11- Abdullah Mohammed Mahmoud / Badrashein police station / Giza
12- Amr Arafa / Badrashein police station
13- Maher Ghazal Badrashein police station /
14- Hisham Basheer / Badrashein police station
The news report was published in al Ahali in its issue of 10-11-2004, to the effect that the four citizens died in custody after they were subjected to torture for coerce into confession of something. Some reports had it that they were charged with possessing arms and drug trafficking .
15: Ashraf Mahran Zaki / Shubra el Khaima police station (2)
Date of death :26-12-2004
This man was injured by a gunshot in a quarrel and was taken to Public Bahteem hospital where the doctor on duty examined him and decided that he was shot with a gunshot in the right side of the face with particles around the skull. The doctor recommended that he be transferred to the Demerdash university hospital for treatment. Also his deposition was registered before the Shubra el Khaima prosecution which upheld his release. But Officer Shareef Shawky rearrested the victim and put him in custody and denied him treatment in spite of his grave injuries and in spite of the prosecution ruling, under the pretext that he was a draft dodger. The victim was kept in custody from 16-12-2004 until 26-12-2004 when he died of his serious wounds.
16- Child Saddam Hussein Hafez / Al Warrak police station Date of Death: 19-12-2004
He was arrested on 13-12-2004 by one of the informers of the investigations department. He was kept in custody with adults although he was still a juvenile. On 16-12-2004 his mother visited him and he told her that they tortured him in custody by hitting and electrifying and hanging. On 20-12-2004 the family was summoned to the department and the investigations department head informed them of the death of their son accounting for the death that some adult inmates fell over their son while he was asleep.
17- Medhat Farouk / 39 / Public Tanta Prison
Date of death: January 2005
Al Ahrar newspaper reported that one of the inmates who was with that dead man said that he was surprised to see him in a state of severe pain that he fainted. This inmate said that they sought help of the prison official but the man died on the way to hospital. The forensic doctor decided that the man died of a malignant lancer in stomach which led to death. The doctor didn’t how many days the lancer patient can live without health care.
18- Bayoumi Barakat : 47/ Public Tanta Prison
It was reported in al Ahrar paper in the same issue that the man died of an acute asthma and failure of respiratory system. It is worth mentioning that the man died in the prison not the hospital.
19- Ahmed Sayed Mkhaimar / 27/ Liman Abu Zabal prison
Date of death : one of the days of February 2005
Al Masry newspaper reported that according to the prison report , the officer on duty was surprised at cries of help from within a cellar of a prisoner . It turned out that he suffered from severe tiredness then he died. The prison doctor decided that the man died of an acute fall in blood circulation which caused the stoppage of the heart muscle (although he was in his twenties). The doctor didn’t state the reason for this fall.
20- Ahmed Galal Ibrahim , 36, Liman Abu Zabal
The same as above
The same scenario repeated several hours after the first man died. The officer on duty was surprised to hear cries .The prison doctor decided that the man died of an acute fall in blood circulation which caused the stoppage of the heart muscle “although he was in his twenties “. The doctor didn’t state the reason for this fall. The inquiries proved no suspected criminal motivations.
21- Ahmed Sabri el Helw, 27, Public Port Said prison
Al Masry al Yom newspaper reported the news of death, saying that the cause of death was acute anal hemorrhage. The report also didn’t state the cause of this hemorrhage and how many days that patient keeps bleeding without health care.
22- Gaber Ahmed el Demiati , 26, Public Damanhour prison February 2005
Al Gamhouria newspaper reported that the man was under protective custody , and the health inspector decided that there were no apparent injuries and that the cause of death was sharp fall in the blood circulation and the heart , although Gaber was only 26
23- Ibrahim Shehta Ibrahim , Banha prison
The news was reported in al Wafd newspaper which said that the prisoner died in prison out of some injuries and hemorrhage, without any details of the cause of these injuries or this hemorrhage.
24: Mahmoud Abdul Aziz, 40, Tora prison
Date of death: 20-3-2005
He was one of the jihad group’s leaderships and he suffered fibrosis for years and the prison administration refused to transfer him to hospital except some minutes before his death.
25- Nafeesa Zakareya al Marakby ,30, Srandwa
Date of death 15-3-2005
She was one of the victims of the events which happened in Srandwa village, Beheira governorate. She was arrested on 13-3-2005. She was kept in a house which the police used as a place for the village women. She kept in custody until she was released on Monday early morning 14-3-2005 while she was in a very bad state . In the evening she was paralyzed and taken to Damanhour hospital where she died on 15-3-2005
26- Ahmed Mohammed Salem, 42, Kafr Sakr police station, Sharkya governorate
Date of death: 18-4-2005
On 16-4-2005, a force of the Kafr Sakr police investigations broke into a house of relatives of this man and arrested 21 of them including women and children. The police led them to the police station and some framed up charges were fabricated to some of them. This man was injured because he dropped himself from the third floor during the police attempts to arrest him. In spite of his grave injuries, he was taken to the police station where he was hit, hung down, electrified and sexually assaulted until he died on 18-4-2005
27- Saeed Zaki Murad, 43, Imbaba police custody
Date of death: 4-5-2005
Al Masry newspaper reported on 4-5-2005 that the man was arrested on 16-4-2005 to carry out judicial rulings against him, but he severely fell ill while he was in custody and had an acute intestinal inflation . He was taken to Public Tahrir Hospital in Imbaba where he died.
28- Tarek Fetouh el Imam: 35, South Port Said police station
Date of death: 5-5-2005
He was already in his last days of a five year sentence when his family was surprised at his death one day before he was released. The family had visited him on 2-5-2005 and he was in good health and morale. The investigations officer told the family that the man hanged himself in the police station. The locals said that when the saw the body, it was full of injuries and that the police officers forced them to bury the body at night under tight guard.
29- Mohammed Suleiman Yousuf , 40, his place of custody and his death place is unknown
Date of death: Late in April 2005
He is the cousin of Ashraf Sayed Yousuf, the main suspect in Al Azhar bombings which took place on 7-4-2005. He was arrested following the bombings from the Al Obour primary school where he worked. He died in custody at the state security agency late in April; the cause of death was not declared nor was the place of custody known to anyone. The family was forced to bury him in secrecy in the graveyard of his village al Amman, Kaliubia under tight security guard . The family declined to give any information or any interviews. It is worth mentioning that two of the brothers of this dead man were still in custody when their brother died.
30 Tarek Taha Mahdi Ghannam , 38, from inside al Ghannam mosque in Talkha city , Kilauea governorate
The date of death: 6-5-2006
The death happened during violent confrontations of the security forces against citizens during peaceful demonstrations organized by the Muslim Brotherhood in Talkha. There was intensive omnipresence of the security forces which enclosed the mosque where the demonstration went out. The security men started to kidnap and detain some of the demonstrators , and they used clubs and tear gas and followed them into the mosque which led to the death of the victim out of asphyxia
31- Ashraf Saed Yousuf , 28, place unknown
Date of death 19-5-2005
He is charged of being the mastermind of the two incidents of Azhar and Abdul Monem Riyadh. He was arrested on 29-4-2005 in Menouf town, Menoufia governorate and was kept in an unknown place until 22-5-2005 when the papers published a statement of the prosecutor general, not the minister of interior, to the effect that on 11-5-2005 the defendant had a severe state of hypertension after which he started to hit his head in the wall, fainted and taken to university Manial hospital. The statement said that his health didn’t allow him to be interrogated by the prosecution until his death on 19-5-2005
The funnies accounts in justifying death cases ( statements of the Ministry of Interior )
Reading the statements published by the official sources in the Ministry of Interior , when interpreting the causes of death cases of citizens , one wonder the reasons fabricated by the ministry which cannot be swallowed except by the idiots only . Even some of these statements can be classified under the category of black comdedy.
Following are some of these funny statements and wonders:
when speaking of the death of Ashraf Yousuf: The defendant suddenly had a hypertension after which he hit himself in the wall of the room”
And in the story of the death of Saddam Hussein Hafez” some inmates fell over the victim while he was asleep”
And in the story of Ahmed Al Musailhy: He was found in the room of the custody with his neck hanging down with a robe of the training suit.
And in the story of Tarek Ftouh el Imam : He hanged himself while in custody , after he endured five years of imprisonment and one day before he was released .
Most strangely is that the Ministry of Interior doesn’t consider that one of its responsibilities is to secure the safety of those imprisoned or in custody , and this includes preventing them from doing harm to themselves and preventing harming them by any other inmates . Even if we believe these accounts, they, however, bear condemnation in themselves.
As regards the accounts of the death of Ahmed Samy, 25, Ahmed Sayed Mkhaimar, 27, Ahmed Galal Ibrahim, 36, And Gaber Ahmed el Demiaty, 26, all of them were of the inmates and were young as shown in their ages. However, it seems that the Ministry of Interior plays down the medical logic and considers that the cause of death can be a sharp fall in the blood and stop of the heart muscle. These signs may be considered logic with the old and senile people, but to consider this a cause to justify the death of one in his primary life, this is truly abnormal.
And in the accounts of the death of prisoner Medhat Farouk, who allegedly fainted due to lancer and this led to death, prisoner Bayoumi Barakat who allegedly died of an acute asthma followed by failure in the respiratory system then death followed, prisoner Sabri el Helw, who allegedly died of an acute hemorrhage, and Saeed Zaki who is said to suffer acute intestine bleeding leading to his death. These diseases above-mentioned are not deadly ones in nature and they can be treated and given first aid and do not lead to death except in grave negligence and the patient hasn’t received any treatment for a long time.
After this tragic report on torture in Egypt, each of us must have asked himself several questions, mainly:
*who stands behind torture in Egypt and the Middle East region?
Who assists these regimes politically, morally and materially?*
*who exports the torture machines to these regimes (the Time magazine uses the word machine, translator)
*what is the role of the western peoples toward their regimes which exercise torture daily by standing behind these dictatorial regimes which exercise terrorism and torture against their peoples?
And there are Several questions , but there remains the answer in the mind of the free western readers whom we hope to move to prevent their governments from backing these suppressive regimes ; ( believe it or not ) funds of taxpayers in the west are spent on torture in the East.
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